400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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Course Code: 400418
University: Western Sydney University

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Country: Australia


Becoming a professional in this field requires an understanding of health advancement and health promotion theory in a public health context. This unit aims to introduce the basic concepts, theory and use of principles relating to health advancement and health promotion. Upon successfully completing this unit, you should be able to:
1 Critically analyse the history of health promotion, current issues, principles and values;
2 Apply the principles of the Ottawa and Bangkok Charters;
3 Identify and apply different theoretical positions to influence beliefs and health behaviours;
4 Identify the determinants of health, barriers and factors enhancing health promotion action, including the effect of social capital on health outcomes;
5 Critically analyse ways of working effectively with individuals, groups, communities and populations (e.g. policy and legislative actions, social marketing and media, community organisation and environmental adaptations);
6 Apply principles of best practice in health promotion;
7 Explore the role of health promotion in specific priority health issues;
8 Demonstrate the health promotion competencies for conducting a stakeholder analysis, assessing community needs and resources and be able to plan and evaluate strategies for a relevant health issue;
9 Develop an evaluation plan for a health promotion intervention.
You may choose any topic area and geographic context you wish, as long as you can justify the public health importance of the health outcome as part of your proposal. You may choose to continue working on the same (or similar) topic area that you addressed in Assignment 1, but this is not imperative. In order to keep the scope and scale of the proposal realistic, you need to ensure that your budget does not exceed $200K per year and can becompleted within 3 years.
Structure your report using the following headings (sub-headings can be defined as needed):

Aims and objectives
Background and rationale
Proposed action plan
Anticipated outcomes and significance
Strategies to evaluate outcomes
Proposed timeline
Proposed budget, and justification of budget


Diabetes is a chronic condition affecting individuals because their body cells does not utilize insulin produce or there is not enough insulin leading to high sugar levels. However, (WHO, 2014) defined diabetes as a chronic condition whereby pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body cells does not sufficiently use the insulin produced leading to high or elevated sugar levels. The purpose of this essay is to come up with the most appropriate health promotion intervention objectives suitable for prevention, management, and control of diabetes in Australia. Firstly, the paper will identify literature and evidence around diabetes prevention and control. Secondly, the paper will focus on the search strategy for the data and inclusion and exclusion criteria for all the information searched and analyzed. Finally, I will come up with the arising study objectives from the evidence.
Literature review
The rise in the number of cases of diabetes diagnosis has increased globally. International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 2014) makes it clear that the increase in the total of cases is now becoming a significant public health concern globally. IDF, (2014) also states that most people who are affected by diabetes are of ages between 40 years and 59 years with almost  179 million population having undiagnosed diabetes. In the year 2013, over 21 million live births were affected while in the year 2014 the mortality rate of diabetes was 4.9 million. This kind of rise the number of new cases of diabetes is what IDF Atlas (2012) the number of individuals diagnosed with diabetes will have doubled by the year 2030. The above studies demonstrate the need for more allocation of resources on diabetes management as the risk is high among the population.
The significant factors associated with diabetes are, lifestyle modifications, genetic, age, socioeconomic burdens, and gender. According to Haas L, Maryniuk M, Beck J, (2013) increase in the number of new cases of diabetes are associated with unhealthy or inadequate dietary intake, overweight, genetic and also modifiable risk factors such as social, economic deprivation (poverty) and use of other substances such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. According to a survey conducted by (Australian Bureau of Statistics, (2015), high-risk factors for diabetes includes overweight, unhealthy diets and lack of physical activities. From the two studies, it is evident that there is a need for continuous health education among the risky population to address the need for healthy diet and physical activities as they increase one’s risk of getting diabetes.
Current trends in signs and symptoms of diabetes suggest that mostly the signs are so mild that its difficult for someone to realize that he has diabetes condition. This makes it difficult for people who are not well informed on diabetes to know when the sugar levels are high hence the majority of people are only diagnosed when the sugar levels are high. A study conducted by (CDA, 2012) stated that 35% up to 44% of people living with diabetes are only diagnosed when the complications arise. A different study conducted by American Diabetes Association, (ADA, 2015) suggested that people should be facilitated with skills, knowledge, and ability for self-care of diabetes by being able to know signs or symptoms of elevated sugar levels. These two studies demonstrate that there is a need for education programs so that people are facilitated with adequate information on self-detecting high sugar levels, know how to prevent, manage and control.
Most countries are experiencing a shortage of healthcare workers. This makes it difficult extensive health education to reach as many people as possible for early detection of complications and management. Jane K et al., (2011) claims that the successful management of diabetes requires an excellent team of health workers who can interact well with the patient’s incompetence and respectful relationship. Another study conducted by (Carrie, Christopher, and Jonathan, 2010) stated that health educators who lack sufficient training and confidence especially in delivering physical activities and exercises among patients who have been diagnosed of diabetes hinder patient ability to engage in physical activities. Kunt and Snoek, (2009) found that lack of experience or attributes of low motivation and time constraints are challenges experienced by health care providers hindering provision of appropriate health care. The above reports show that there is much need for the government agencies to ensure that health care providers are well equipped with adequate skills so that they can provide the needed services to the patients with diabetes. The reports also demonstrate that there is a need to ensure that more healthcare providers are trained so that health facilities have enough caregivers who can adequately provide health education to the patients. The Australian government should ensure that the health sector is well equipped with appropriately qualified health professions and health educator so that they can reach a large number of people who do not have information on diabetes.
Search strategy
Sources of Data:  Electronic databases Google scholar, and Web of Science were searched for publications on diabetes management, prevention and control in Australia for the period (2000 – date). Other searches were also done by use of google scholar on literature on diabetes management.  
Evaluation, monitoring and proper research were conducted to ensure reliable information is selected from the sources. This helped in making sure that the information used in the study was of importance on determinants of health in broad ways and selected information can be used across health outcomes.
Search keywords: The most used terminology in this search included diabetes and while other searches included management and prevention and control, and Australia.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
The reason for the selection of this evidence was to address the gap and health concerns arising from diabetes management and prevention. First, the evidence proved that diabetes is a public health concern with the rising number of new cases. This calls for all government and nongovernmental organizations in coming up with appropriate strategy and intervention to reduce the increase in the number of new cases.
Secondly, the evidence showed that there is a need for awareness on lifestyle modification including the need for regular physical exercises. This should be a key area of concern because these are the risk factors increasing someone’s chance of getting diabetes.
Third, the evidence showed that there should be a plan on how to disseminate information to the public to increase their knowledge of self-prevention. The evidence suggests the need for proper interventions for coming up with appropriate information and channel of spreading information to the people on the arising health issues and how to prevent themselves.
Lastly, evidence addressed the shortage of healthcare workers which is also limiting the ability to pass the information to the public. This calls for interventions on how young people can be motivated to join health courses to reduce the shortage of care providers.
Evidence and literature review of this study suggests four broad conclusions. First, the evidence indicates that an increasing number of new cases of diabetes should be taken as much serious as possible because a high number of people are at risk. This can be achieved through regular screening of the population to determine those diagnosed with diabetes to prevent complications and to educate those without diabetes on self-prevention. Secondly, evidence suggests increase action for health education and reaching out to a large population so that people can understand the importance of healthy eating and regular exercises. This will help prevent incidence where people become at risk as a result of being overweight and eating unhealthy diets. Third, the evidence showed that most people know of diabetes after complications have occurred. This raises a need for extensive health education programs with the aim of equipping the people with adequate knowledge on diabetes, causes, risk factors, signs and symptoms and prevention methods. Finally, evidence showed that the government of Australia should invest in health sector increasing the number of health caregivers and ensuring that they are equipped with adequate knowledge and skills. This will help to provide that information being delivered to the public is reliable and can help them take control of the prevention and management of diabetes. I have suggested that having enough skilled and motivated health care workers will assist in ensuring that reliable information is delivered to the public for self-protection against diabetes.
Study objectives from the evidence
The evidence from the study has provided information that is useful in coming up with proper health promotion intervention objectives as explained herein. First, to create awareness on diabetes management and prevention among the target population. This is a health promotion objective intervention intended to make sure that people are facilitated with reliable information to increase their knowledge on management and prevention of diabetes.
Secondly, to educate the target population on the importance of a healthy diet and the need for regular physical exercises. It is a health education intervention to ensure that people are aware of the risk factors of diabetes and how they can prevent themselves within their home settings.
Finally, to assess the knowledge and attitude among healthcare providers on service delivery on diabetes prevention and management. This is a health promotion intervention objective to determine if the healthcare workers are motivated enough to provide reliable information to the public.
American Diabetes Association, (2015) Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Sec.4. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2015, Diabetes Care 2015; 38 (Suppl. 1): S20–S30
American Diabetes Association, (2015) Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Sec.4. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2015, Diabetes Care 2015; 38 (Suppl. 1): S20–S30
Australian Bureau of Statistics, (2015). National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15. 4364.0.55.001Viewed 23 May 2016.
Carrie J.D.B, Christopher, A.S, Jonathan, R.F. et al.,(2010): Including Physical Activity and Exercise in Diabetes Management: Diabetes Educators’ Perceptions of their Abilities and Abilities of their Patients. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 34(3), 218-226
Canada Diabetes Association, (2012). World Diabetes Day.
Haas L, Maryniuk M, Beck J, (2013) National standards for diabetes self-management education and support. Diabetes Care; 37 (Suppl. 1): S144–S153
International Diabetes Federation (2014)
International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas (2012)
Jane K. Joanne M, Gallivan C (2011); National Diabetes Education Program and the role of Partnership in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes
Kunt T. and Snoek, F.J. (2009); Barriers to Insulin intensification and How to Overcome them. International Journal of clinical Practice supplement (164), 6-10
World Health Organization, (2014). Methods for life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. Global health estimates technical paper. WHO/HIS/HSI/GHE/2014.5. Geneva:

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