7325MED Health Services And Information Systems

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7325MED Health Services And Information Systems

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Course Code: 7325MED
University: Griffith University

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Country: Australia

Evaluate the Innovative Health Informatics Technology and the Implementation of the same into the Health Care Organization.

A Health information system (HIS) is something that stores and manages the data regarding the health issues and activities of an organization working within a specific health sector. The HIS provides rigorous benefits to the organization. However needs to be considered for further evaluation.Social and organizational issues are found to bethe chief components of the HIS. It is claimed that the more involvement between humans, technology and the organization can cause greater benefits and the potential for such a system (Informatics, 2017). Several factors are considered to be responsible for influencing the HIS and the technological data recording system.This report evaluates and discusses the innovative technological advances in the health information system and the impact of the same on the users, the organization, and the patients. The technological implementation in the health care organization is done by the system called Electronic Health Record (EHR).The implementation of the health information system and the technological innovation in the same context for the organization influences the improvement of patient care and the health outcome. The primary importance of using such a system is providing a better and planned health system to the patients as well as analyzing the health inequities in the determinants.Despite various advantages of the health informatics technologies, the risk of such a system cannot be denied. The following report comprised the evidence using from the literature including the background, framework and the basis of the evaluation.
Theoretical Background and Framework:
The proposed organization, human and the technology-fit analysis framework has been developed after the critical evaluation of the potential findings of the HIS and Information System (IS) analytical studies(Urbach& Müller, 2012). The successful review of the determines its use in the assessment of the HIS. The IS model can be considered as complementary to the HIS for accomplishing the limitations of potential HIS analytical framework such as the IT-Organization Fit model, resulting to the construction of the HOT-fit with the utilization of the both models (Lin & Wang, 2012).
Hence, the IS model is followed for this purpose. The human, organization and the technology-fit (HOT-fit)helps the IS model to categorize the measures, dimensions and the factors of the evaluation (Hsu et al., 2014). Another model called the IT-Organization Fit model can be complementary to HIS for integrating organizational factors with the concept of the HOT-fit factors (Informatics, 2017).
Human and Organizational Factors:
The implementation of the human and organizational factor into the IS model and the importance of the same requires thorough and careful evaluation of the HIS for addressing the factors and the alignment among them (Bossen, Jensen &Udsen, 2013). There are certain boundaries that are considered which are the reasons behind the success and the failure of this particularsystem. The process change and the cultural issues are considered the boundaries for the health care system from wider use of the same. Apart from this, there are several other barriers such as, poor expertise, inadequate acceptance, change of the patterns of the traditional workflow and the lack of sponsorship for the medical staffs. Among the organizational limitations are risk factors, hospital culture and the unwillingness to invest. The framework of the McLean and the DeLone is also taken into account for the measurement of the success and the failure of the HIS and the implementation of the EHR.  Numerous contingent factors are found from this particular framework such as organizational categories, patients’ trust and the implementation of the HER (Qiao, Asan, & Montague, 2015).
Technological Factors:
Another important factor for measuring the health care system in HIS through the IS model is the technology. From the six major components of the IS model, System Quality which is associated with the system performance is based on the technology. Information Quality is another component that records the data of patients’ prescriptions, reports and other information regarding the health of the patients. The technological factors enhance the credibility, accuracy, completeness, consistency, relevancy and reliability of the information (Wang et al., 2014).
Improvement of the Health Care:
The technological introduction of the HIS into the health care organization or storing the data and the information about the patients’ health will definitely improve patient care (Zinszer et al., 2013). The ultimate health outcome from the HIS undoubtedly is effective because of the integration and the advanced technological features of the HIS. The EHR is capable of supporting and adopting the patient safety practices and fixing the safety issues regarding the patients’ health. The EHR also determines and ensures the health outcome by engaging the patients with the system. Implementation of the EHR in the HIS ensures the access of the potential user and the relation of the patients with the professional (Terry, 2015). Ensuring user access in the user interface of the HIS will not only encourage them, but also create a sense of satisfaction in them with their health and sense of trust regarding the treatment of the health care system.  The technological advancement for securing the potential patients and providing the opportunity to the patients to access the system will improve their satisfaction (Collier, 2014). Thus, consequently the health outcome of the patients will be improved.
The introduction of the HIS into the organization has not only made the process easy for the organization, but also has improved the quality of the patient health care and the health outcome. The electronic health record is supportive towards the adoption of the quality of the patient care and their safety (Emmendorfer et al., 2012). Apart from the easy access to the information and the data of the patients, the satisfaction of the patients has also been increased by the introduction of the technological information storing system (Platt, Jacobson &Kardia, 2017). Though the patients are not the direct user of the system, the study shows that the patients have given positive feedback and showed much enthusiasm for implementing the new IS model. This study recognizes to having the positive feedback and satisfaction of the patients over the implementation HIS is important.
Benefits of Technological Introduction:
It is evident from the evaluation that the introduction of the EHR system has bought various advantages to the organization dealing with the health problems (Informatics, 2017). The benefits of the technological implementation of HIS into the health care organization can be categorized into different section. The advantages are as follows:
The initial benefit of the implementation of the EHR is the transparency and the accuracy of the data and the information of the patients. The electronic documentation of the patients’ information in the health care organization helps to improve the quality of documentation.It is found from a survey that the majority of professionalsagree to the fact that the EHR has improved the documentation quality such as lower time consumption in finding the required and specific information of the patient (Nguyen, Bellucci& Nguyen, 2014). Moreover, it increases the safety and the reliability of the data stored in the system.
Shift in Workflows:
The shift in the workflows can be seen in the administrative and the clinical staff. The EHR implementation has a positive impact on the staff working in the health care organization (Barlow, 2015). The tasks assigned to the staff, take less time because of the technological introduction into the system. The system has beneficial impact on both the doctors and the nurses. It has become easy for the  professionals like doctors to access the data easily and they do not have to remember any specific information all by themselves. The technology into the system for managing and storing the vast amount of data has benefitted the organization by consuming less time in every task and shifting the nature of the work from manual to technological (Goetz et al., 2012).
Shift in Productivity and Workload:
The productivity of the organization that has implemented the EHR, has increased. The technological enhancement in the system has replaced the manual process. Hence, the productivity of the work has been increased (IJMI – ScienceDirect.com, 2017). In addition, the workload for the staffs has been reduced to a certain extent because of the technological improvement in the system. Precisely, the implementation of the EHR has not only decreased the work pressure for the staff of the health care organizations, but also elevated the productivity level.
Increment of Competency Level of Administration:
It is found from the studies that there has been an elevation in the efficiency level of the administration. Because of the automated documentation of the data in the EHR system, the task like billing, preparing medical report have become better and accurate and consequently the efficiency in performing the administrative tasks has been improved.
Cost Reduction:
The implementation of the EHR into the overall system of the health care organization has reduced the cost of the company. The EHR system has replaced all of the manual systems; hence, the cost for the staff performing those jobs has been cut off (Helton et al., 2012). The expense of the organization now only depends on the implementation of the EHR system, and no other costs like salaries for the additional helping staff are there to bear by the organization. Consequently, the cost of the organizations has been reduced, which can be undoubtedly considered as beneficial (Beresniak et al., 2016).
Relationship of Clinician-Patient:
The relationship between the clinician and the patient is considered multidimensional.Numerous studies have been done on the relationship of the clinician and patient. After the implementation of the EHR in the health care organization, irrespective of the size, it is evident that the doctor and the nurses spend more time with the patients (Goetz et al., 2012). This is because the paper work is not dependent on the manual process anymore. The EHR has replaced it and as a result, the time for visiting the patients has been increased (Zainab, 2014). This can be marked as another major benefit of the implementation of the innovative technological introduction to the health organization.
Safety and Quality of Care:
The quality of the health care for the patients has been improved in the organization that has implemented the EHR system. The chance of error in the medication has been reduced; the follow up of the test report and the communication and coordination in the care team has also been improved because of the technological introduction to the health care system (Terry, 2015). The safety of the care provided to the patients has increased because of fewer mistakes and more accuracy in the medication process (Sittig& Singh, 2012).
Risk Assessment of the EHR:
Apart from the beneficial effect from the introduction of the EHR into the health care organization, the risk of using innovative technology cannot be ignored. The technological advancement in the health sectors certainly has a positive impact on the entire administrative system of the organization, but there are a few drawbacks of the EHR system can be found.
The EHR system is capable of solving the safety issues regarding the patients’ health care, but it also is capable of creating problems for the same. The continuous input of the information of the vast number of patient can cause technical trouble in the system (Yucel et al., 2012). The EHR may shut down due to the overload of the system if not maintained properly. For example, the clinician may be unable to process the data due to his business with the patient and as a result, the data can be lost.
The constant usage of the system by number of staffs in the organization leads the system to open more than one screen at a time, which may cause the technical breakdown of the system (Asan et al., 2015).
Unauthorized persons in the organizations can access the data and the information uploaded in the system. The confidentiality of the information regarding the patients’ health plays vita role in the safety issue of the patients. The unauthorized access apart from the doctors and the nurses in the system can hamper the patient; safety regarding the health care information (Joe, 2013). This situation can cause trouble for the health care professional as well as the patients. If any loss of the important data happens in the system, the patients can charge the organization for not providing him proper safety regarding his health.
The EHR system needs to be updated every time clinicians receive new information about the patients. If the informationis not recorded in real-time, it can lead to the inaccuracy of the information (Triff et al., 2012). Inaccurate and inappropriate data entry of the patient can lead to the potential liability of the organization. The errors and inaccurate data regarding the medication of the patient can result into the severe health issue of the patient.
In some cases, the patient can directly access to the system to receive the medical test result and information regarding his health. The direct access for the health information may frighten the patients if they are unable to understand the medical terms in the report provided in the system (Vallette& Caldwell, 2013).
Staff of the health organization are not paying attentionanymore for checking the accuracy of the information uploaded in the system due to their over reliance on the EHR system. The wrong information in the system can lead the doctors to misunderstand the problems of the patients resulting to the wrong treatment of them.
It can be concluded from the above evaluation of the implementation of innovative health informatics technology into the health organization is undoubtedly one of the major revolutions in the medial administration system. Several factors are considered responsible for influencing the implementation of the electronic health record (EHR)into the health organization. The report implies that the engagement of the three major factors, human, organization and technology can broaden the way for implementing the EHR.The health information system (HIS) has not only made the system of managing maintaining the data information of the patients easy for the health care professionals, but also has enhanced the safety and the quality of the health care. Researching on the framework of McLean and DeLone’s IS model; the beneficial aspect of the EHR is evident from the above report. The report implies that the technological innovation in the HIS has benefitted the health care professionals as well as the patients. The major advantage of the EHR is definitely the elevation in the quality of the health care, which further leads to improve the relationship between the clinicians and the patients. Apart from the user related benefits, the administrations of the health organization has been equally privileged by the introduction of this technological system. However, the close and deep analysis of the above report implies and points out the inevitable drawbacks of the EHR. Besides the number of advantages, the risk of using the EHR is simultaneous and unavoidable, though these can be overcome by the health professional. However, the evaluation of the report entails the mostly positive aspect of the innovative health informatics technology.

Asan, Carayon, Beasley, & Montague. (2015). Work system factors influencing physicians’ screen sharing behaviors in primary care encounters. International Journal of Medical Informatics,84(10), 791-798.
Barlow, R. (2015). EHRs: Utility vs. futility. Health Management Technology,36(4), 6-9.
Beresniak, Schmidt, Proeve, Bolanos, Patel, Ammour, . . .Dupont. (2016). Cost-benefit assessment of using electronic health records data for clinical research versus current practices: Contribution of the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) European Project. Contemporary Clinical Trials,46, 85-91.
Bossen, C., Jensen, L. G., &Udsen, F. W. (2013). Evaluation of a comprehensive EHR based on the DeLone and McLean model for IS success: approach, results, and success factors. International journal of medical informatics, 82(10), 940-953.
Collier, R. (2014). New tools to improve safety of electronic health records. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal,186(4), 251.
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Helton, J., Langabeer, J., DelliFraine, J., & Hsu, C. (2012). Do EHR investments lead to lower staffing levels? Healthcare Financial Management,66(2), 54-60.
Hsu, Meng-Hsiang, Chang, Chun-Ming, Chu, Kuo-Kuang, & Lee, Yi-Jung. (2014). Determinants of repurchase intention in online group-buying: The perspectives of DeLone& McLean IS success model and trust. Computers in Human Behavior,36, 234.
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Lin, W. S., & Wang, C. H. (2012). Antecedences to continued intentions of adopting e-learning system in blended learning instruction: A contingency framework based on models of information system success and task-technology fit. Computers & Education, 58(1), 88-99.
Nguyen, L., Bellucci, E., & Nguyen, L. T. (2014). Electronic health records implementation: an evaluation of information system impact and contingency factors. International journal of medical informatics, 83(11), 779-796.
Platt, J., Jacobson, P., &Kardia, S. (2017). Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: A Measure of System Trust. Health Services Research.
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Sittig, D. F., & Singh, H. (2012). Electronic health records and national patient-safety goals.
Terry, K. (2015). Mining EHR data for quality improvement: How physicians can provide better care and adhere to quality metrics, and why its important to start now. Medical Economics,92(6), 40-43.
Triff, Dorin, Triff, Zorica, Tigan, Stefan, &Cadariu, Andrei. (2012). Survey on the Use of Electronic Health Records by Occupational Medicine Physicians. Applied Medical Informatics,30(2), 7-17.
Urbach, N., & Müller, B. (2012). The updated DeLone and McLean model of information systems success. In Information systems theory(pp. 1-18). Springer New York.
Vallette, M., & Caldwell, B. (2013). Patient and Provider Perspectives on Electronic Helath Record (EHR) Information Access and Rights. Proceedings of the International Symposium of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare,2(1), 64-68.
Wang, J., Cha, J., Sebek, K., McCullough, C., Parsons, A., Singer, J., & Shih, S. (2014). Factors Related to Clinical Quality Improvement for Small Practices Using an EHR. Health Services Research,49(6), 1729-1746.
Yucel, G., Cebi, S., Hoege, B., &Ozok, A. F. (2012). A fuzzy risk assessment model for hospital information system implementation. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(1), 1211-1218.
Zainab, K. (2014). Effects of exam room EHR use on doctor-patient communication: A systematic literature review. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics,21(1), 30-39.
Zinszer, Tamblyn, Bates, &Buckeridge. (2013). A qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system. BMC Public Health,13, 509.

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