Chronic Lung Disease and Intervention Methods
Table of Contents Introduction Preventable Disease Overview Evidence-Based Intervention Implementation: Teaching Plan Evaluation Summary References Introduction Despite the significant advancement of the healthcare system concerning preventable diseases, many illnesses are still the urgent problem of modern medicine. In this regard, there is a need to find a way of dealing with such ailments to improve statistics on public health. One of such illnesses is a chronic lung disease that affects a large number of adults. The most frequent modifiable risk factor is smoking since it is tobacco consumption that destroys lung cells, thereby disrupting their normal work. The purpose of this paper is to find relevant intervention methods that may be effective in treating chronic lung disease and develop a special teaching plan that can be applied to patients with such a diagnosis.
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Preventable Disease Overview Chronic lung disease is a progressive and life-threatening illness that predisposes to exacerbation. According to Vogelmeier et al. (2017), among the reasons causing the development of such an ailment, the vast majority of cases are associated with smoking. Other factors include occupational hazards (the inhalation of harmful gases and particles), respiratory infections of childhood, concomitant bronchopulmonary pathology, and bad ecology. At an early stage, chronic lung disease is secretive and is not always detected on time. Typical symptoms start from the moderate stage when there are a strong cough and sputum. At an early stage, coughing may be episodic with mucous sputum and shortness of breath with intense exertion. As the severity of the disease progresses, the patient’s condition worsens, and the shortness of breath is felt at rest. When diagnosing the illness, it is essential to pay attention to the presence of bad habits (smoking) and production factors. As Vogelmeier et al. (2017) note, the most significant method of functional assessment is spirometry that reveals the first signs of the disease. The summation and the ratio of these parameters allow diagnosing the illness and beginning the treatment process. The participant’s risk for this disease was identified due to specific information gathered in the Genetic Family History where similar symptoms and outcomes were described. Evidence-Based Intervention As the intervention related to the modifiable risk identified and aimed at eliminating the preventable disease in question, a smoking cessation program will be applied. The study participant consumes nicotine daily, and in order to minimize the effects of the addiction and eliminate it further, the program described by Ellerbeck et al. (2018) will be used. The intervention is based on 10-week sessions and consultations with pulmonologists and provides for smoking cessation to prevent chronic lung disease. According to Ellerbeck et al. (2018), long-term goals include complete cessation during 12 months after the therapy and counseling. From a short-term perspective, nicotine intake is reduced, which has a positive effect on lung function. The rationale for using this intervention is that it is smoking that is the most common risk factor for the development of the disease, and such therapy will certainly contribute to the positive outcomes of treatment. Implementation: Teaching Plan In order for the intervention to be effective, the participant needs to obtain comprehensive information regarding the characteristics of the disease and its consequences. In particular, the dangerous results of smoking are to be described, and for this purpose, relevant materials should be proposed for review. The advantages of cessation should be presented in the same way as it is done on the official website of the state organization for public health (WHO, 2018).
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Also, the involvement of other medical professionals is welcome, for instance, the help of a nutritionist who controls the participant’s diet after his quitting smoking. As Ellerbeck et al. (2018) remark, in case of the impossibility of personal meetings, telephone consultations are mandatory for continuous intervention. To achieve the intended goal, the participant will be asked to reduce the number of cigarettes gradually over several weeks to stop smoking eventually. Further work will be associated with the assessment of not only the physical but also the psychological outcome of the intervention. Evaluation Intervention assessment is an important component of work since it may help to assess the success of the implemented program. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course of treatment, some health indicators need to be monitored, in particular, the clinical analysis of the participant’s lung condition and body mass since there is a tendency for weight gain after cessation. In case the proposed plan is unsuccessful, the program will be revised to look for weak points, and an individual therapy program will be designed while taking into account the degree of the participant addiction and certain physiological features, for instance, the stage of the illness, related complications, and other criteria. Summary A specially designed teaching plan aimed at treating chronic lung disease may include a therapeutic program that monitors smoking cessation as one of the main modifiable risk factors. Through the intervention, it is planned to improve patient’s well-being and their complete abandonment of tobacco consumption. Also, observations by other specialists may allow monitoring the course of therapy and all the changes taking place. Such work can be a valuable mechanism of helping patients suffering from chronic lung disease and experiencing an irresistible craving for smoking. References Ellerbeck, E. F., Nollen, N., Hutcheson, T. D., Phadnis, M., Fitzgerald, S. A., Vacek, J.,… Richter, K. P. (2018). Effect of long-term nicotine replacement therapy vs standard smoking cessation for smokers with chronic lung disease: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open, 1(5), e181843. Web. Vogelmeier, C. F., Criner, G. J., Martinez, F. J., Anzueto, A., Barnes, P. J., Bourbeau, J.,… Agusti, A. (2017). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive lung disease 2017 report. GOLD executive summary. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 195(5), 557-582. Web. World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). Tobacco free initiative (TFI). Web.