Depression in the Elderly Male

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Depression in the Elderly Male

Words: 7174

Subject: Psychiatry

Depression has been used to refer to the situation where one is in a state of feeling low and miserable. The diagnosis for depression is made after one is assessed of symptoms related to low moods. Depression is a common diseases and it can be developed by any one in the society. It is a treatable disease although it is best is to do things one can be able to do and seek help for the things one cannot do. There are no specific genders that are at more risk than others but it has been reported than women suffer more from depression than men (Cantopher, 2006).

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Some risks that have been identified include genetic factors such as having a relative who has suffered from depression while other factors are not genetic and they are driven by the life situations that we may find ourselves in as we grow. Causes of depression have not been fully understood but the condition is associated with occurrence of stressful events that may occur such as losing jobs, non-performing relationships among others. It can also be as result of other illness or drugs that have been administered to treat a certain illness. It can there fore be conclude that the rise of depression can result from different causes depending on the lifestyle of the individuals. Depression has been taken as a serious public health concern in most countries. It is the most common disorder that occurs within the elderly bracket and it can be manifested by very minor depressive symptoms. Some scholars have dismissed the statistics than women are twice likely to suffer from depression than men this is because most men are not comfortable exposing their problems and many will actually prefer turning to drug to drug abuse. Men are naturally not eager to seek for assistance like women. Depression in men can be manifested in a number of ways such as complaints about pain or aches, lack of sleep, low energy and loss of appetite. Men who are suffering from depression may also lack interest in sex, lack self confidence, avoid other people, feel hopeless and having a feeling of uselessness, and be unable to make decisions. Most of the symptoms in the elderly are not expressed by the low mood but by the physical symptoms, anxiety, forgetfulness, and confusion (Gilbert, 2000). Such cases of forgetfulness often lead to dementia which becomes very frustrating for the individual himself and also for the people who are looking after him. Men even when they suffer from depression are not quick to admit it. It may occur for a number of reasons as the men progress with age. Researchers have tried to establish the causes of depression in the elderly as it may be related to the changes in the level of testosterone as they age. Testosterone levels have been scientifically proven to decrease with aging men. Most men over the age of 50 are considered to have abnormally low testosterone levels (Chew-graham, 2008). This problem can be more diverse if the individuals are involved in alcoholism or if they are obese or under any physical or psychological stress. Men with low levels of testosterone in their blood are categorized as more at risk of suffering from depression. Depression in older men due to loss of productivity is on the increase and this normally goes untreated for this group. As men grow old the prostate glands may enlarge and this eventually leads to prostate cancer. This cancer increases its risk as men grow old. The fact that an old man may suffer from prostate cancer means that such men will lose their productivity. This is one of the leading causes of depression in older men as they come to accept the fact that they may never again in life become sexually active due to the health conditions that may occur as a result of their age. Infertility that may come with these conditions may cause a lot of worry in men and this might eventually lead to depression (Crome, 1994). Men are also the sole providers of many families today. They are held with the obligation of proving shelter, clothing, and food for their families. In the middle ages, most men will manage to meet this obligation as they have the energy to work and provide for the family. Most countries have placed the age limit at which one can work especially in the public service and private companies. This means that as the men grow old, they are at a greater risk of being unable to provide for their families. In other cases, some companies may lay off individuals due to the loss of energy to work as they grow old. This is referred to as retrenchment. Most men who find themselves in a situation of not providing for their families when they were used to proving the basic need are often worried and unable to cope with the situation. This leads to depression as these men end up feeling useless and unproductive for their families. They are faced with a situation where they do not know how they will be able to cater for themselves or their families (Rosenberg, 1981). Getting jobs on the other hand becomes more difficult due to the age factor. It is not easy too for a man who has been used to working to stay idle the whole day without any expectation of income. These older men often feel that they are failing their families by lack of provision. Most of them after the loss of jobs are often faced with the question of how to cater for the total expenses in the household. Sometimes it calls for a reduction in the budget of the family especially if there is no one else to rely on in the family. Once the family starts getting the stress of not enjoying the life they used to, the older men now start putting pressure on their minds by always thinking about what they can do to arrest the situation. Pressure may also amount from the family members who may still want to demand support from this bracket of men. Such pressures may become difficult to handle thus putting more pressure on their minds. This then leads to stress which with time may lead to depression. Unemployment in older men may therefore lead to marriage break-ups, and premature death (Connidis, 1989). Unemployment threatens the economic stability of such homes and also social stability. Loss of employment in men at any age cannot be easily acceptable. If the unemployment in older men rises to high levels within the society it leads to very high tensions within the society and this may lead to self-abuse and an increase in violence and crime in the society.

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The impact of the changes in the lifestyle in terms of economic status, social status, physical and environmental can lead to very big challenges for the older men. They also have their self-confidence and self-esteem at a time when it is most required due to the retrenchment issues. They became very isolated from the rest of society due to the feeling of being useless. This comes as a challenge since at the same time the society expects elderly men to assume new roles of elders within the society. Such socio-cultural changes may become very difficult for these men to adapt and redefine who they are within the society. (John, 1989). If a situation arises when this group of men cannot fulfill both the personal and the social expectations it leads to further thoughts of uselessness and unworthy beings. Such stress may even lead to temptations of suicide since they feel that they are no longer worth living. However, there are still situations where the elderly are still able to hold on to their jobs. However, this does not mean that this small percentage is stress-free and not vulnerable to depression. As these men grow old health issues come along and this may put pressure on their productivity at the place of work. Lack of performance and meeting the goals at their place of work may lead to the stress of losing their jobs due to the dissatisfaction that they may cause the companies. In this case, most men are not able to accept the conditions that are resulting in low productivity. Some who rely on personal employment and agriculture now find it very difficult to attend to their cores to their lack of enough energy to work (Rosenberg, 1981) Culturally men are supposed to provide protection and be the strong gender of the society. As they age they feel that they are losing this important role and cannot help to think of the situations that have led them to such conditions. They start blaming themselves and feeling pity for their inability to offer the expected support. Most of them feel that they are solely responsible for the inability to be as productive as they used to be. They start talking of things that pose them as the guilty ones for many things that do not succeed in their lively hood especially failure to satisfy the obligations of their children. Many mean end up carrying the whole burden of their families that may result from their inability to provide for the family. There is also the fear of family breakups and the loss of important ties in society. Throughout their lives, men concentrate on their role of providing care for their loved ones. It, therefore, becomes very difficult for men to cope with the shift of their role to other people who are now supposed to offer care to them. In the family setup, they play the role of a husband to their wives, a father to their children, and the overall supporter of the family. They are given the special role of being the leaders and law enforcers within the society (Cantopher, 2006). They have the status of power both in society and in the family. As they grow old these roles seem to diminish since they no longer have the strength to perform them effectively. They are usually the final decision-makers in the family setup. In their mid-life, men actively work to support their families especially economically. At the onset of old age, most of them become very weak and they find it very difficult to work and provide for the family. The reason that the issue of not being able to provide a negative perspective in their lives and they end up feeling very guilty and blame themselves. They get the feeling that they are being poor parents who are incapable of providing. They are unable even to provide the most basic needs for their families. As their health deteriorates they are normally in and out of the hospital and most of the savings that they had kept during the earlier years are depleted. This affects them since there is no money going into their accounts as the expenses are increasing due to medical care. They are not able to attend to the many financial duties they used to during their earlier years. Eventually, these men end up changing their way of thinking and view themselves as failures. Such negative thoughts end up with stress and eventually, this leads to depression (Terry, 2001). As the family starts to disintegrate the role of caregiving may also reduce for the elderly men since they have no one to care for. This makes them worry whether their children are comfortable and able to sustain life like they used to. The roles that they used to perform on others are entirely lost and they feel like they are being despised and they end up feeling unwanted and unworthy. They do not have the reason that they have grown old and can, therefore, continue playing the roles they used to play. This makes them very rigid in accepting any assistance from the caregivers who may be there to take care of them. They view the assistance as a burden to those offering the care and sometimes feel like they should be the ones caring for them rather than them being cared for. In fact, most men prefer staying alone rather than staying with their relatives who may be willing to take care of them (Tobbin, 1983). They are more comfortable languishing with their problems rather than asking for assistance since they were not used to seeking assistance in their earlier lives. This change of roles from being the caregivers to being the subjects of care is not easily acceptable in the masculine gender. They give a lot of problems even to the health professionals who give them medical care. They feel undermined as they remember their capability to provide in the earlier years. This fact of coming to fail in old age makes them occupy their minds with many questions of why they cannot be able to take care of themselves. They become very angry with themselves and these failure thoughts lead to a lot of frustration (Rosenberg, 1981). This is especially seen in the extreme cases where they cannot be able to provide any little care for themselves or their families. The simple roles of decision-making are shifted to other people and it is not easy for them to shift from the role of enforcing decisions to the role of obeying the orders of other people. They are depressed since they cannot be able to accept their stage of life and the consequences. The elderly men are also faced with the challenge of coping with the absence of their children who they have cared for all their lives. By the time they are categorized as aged, most of their children are grown-ups and they start having their independent lives. The female children may get married and relocate elsewhere and time may elapse before they can meet their old parents (Gilbert, 2000). This may result to stress on the older men thinking of where these children are, whether they are comfortable with life, and why they are not often near him. The loss of their children makes them become very withdrawn and they feel left out. This may easily lead to depression as they may feel that they are abandoned due to their conditions.

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The greatest challenge for old people is the loss of loved ones via death. This may be the death of his children, his friends, and age mates. The more they attend funerals, the more they get the fear of death that may strike them any time. Most elderly men cannot fully recover from the loss of close persons, especially the loss of spouses and close relatives of long years. The loss of loved ones usually results in intense grief and depression. They usually feel personally responsible for the death of their loved ones. This feeling of failing them leads to the guilt consciousness of the elderly men. The death of especially loved ones who provided them with personal support leaves a deep feeling of isolation and loneliness (Filene, P, 1981). They start experiencing anger, despair, sadness, and guilt. Lose of a spouse leads to moments of self-pity and a state of hopelessness. They lack companionship and this results in to lack of security they find it especially very difficult to cope with the roles that were being played by the female counterpart. Immediate time of loss may not cause much distress as it does when the loss turns out to be a very long period of time. This is because, at the time of the immediate loss, many close allies are always available to offer support. When the other people may respond to the loss by crying the elderly may respond to the loss by withdrawal and depression. After the funeral, many elderly people are left to recover alone from the loss as other people get busy with their normal duties. This leaves them with a feeling of being unloved and also unappreciated. They now find it very difficult to find any meaning in life and start considering it as wasteful, void, and futile. Elderly men suffering from such conditions are likely to develop physical illnesses that may eventually lead to depression. In such a stage they develop the symptoms of being restless, lack of concentration, memory loss, and lack of appetite, lack of sleep, social withdrawal, and avoiding any personal contact. In extreme cases, the situation goes to the heights of suicidal thoughts. Studies have indicated that the issue of losing loved ones by the elderly has led to elderly men to more complicated health conditions and also hastens death (Rosenberg, 1981). Most of them will leave isolated in poverty and do not involve themselves in any active social activities. It is therefore important for the governments to address the issues related to the elderly by providing them with environments that are busy and capable of drawing their attention from self-thoughts. This includes homes and social groups that are active in giving care to elderly persons. Isolation and loneliness for the elderly are inevitable but this does not mean that they should be left the suffer from the same. One of the recommended ways that we can attend to this situation is to avoid the elderly men from leaving alone once they lose their loved ones. This is because the reality of lacking sight of anyone leaves them with no one to share their problems with (Nancy, 1978). This, therefore, means that whenever they are faced with difficult situations they debate on these issues alone and make the decisions on their own. Once something does not succeed they blame themselves for failure and this leads to further n conditions of depression. The families of the elderly persons may be too busy to visit and care for them owing to the different things that they may have to attend to. Elderly men cannot be compared to women since men naturally keep their problems to themselves and may assume they are comfortable not sharing them. Over time, they may start questioning why everyone has deserted them they direct these thoughts to their inability to provide and this may lead them to suffer emotional stress. Society may also be too busy to attend to them making life more lonely for them since they neither see nor talk to anyone. In many cases, they start talking to themselves and this is a great sign of depression in such elderly men. Elderly men are faced with health conditions that become very challenging for them. As they grow several changes do occur in the body that may cause changes in its normal functioning. The issue of hormonal changes especially at old age comes with various health complications. A big percentage of men in old age suffer from one or two chronic illnesses (Crome, 1994). Such chronic illnesses are the major leading causes of death in most elder persons. The occurrence of one medical condition may lead to other more adverse medical condition which ends up with multiple chronic diseases. Some of the medical problems that may come with aging in elderly men may be chronic and this poses a big challenge for them to live with the diseases. One of the most common chronic illnesses that are common in elderly men is prostate cancer. This is a disease that strikes them at the age of forty and above. This is because at this age the prostrate glands start resizing again and this may lead to the inflammation of the prostate glands leading to cancer. Apart from prostate cancer, other problems such as bladder cancer may arise. This is the fourth most leading cancer in men and normally affects men from the age of 50. Smokers in this case are at a greater risk of getting cancer as well as the people who work with chemicals used in dye, leather, and rubber industries. The fact that the bladder is cancerous gives big problems in controlling urination (Jennifer L, 2000).

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Other common diseases in elderly men include the occurrence of impotence, testicular problems, high blood pressure, and heart diseases. These are diseases that claim the lives of most men before the age of 75. This is because most men are involved in smoking habits in their earlier ages, while some may have concentrated on poor fatty diets that lead to overweight due to lack of exercise. The presence of high blood pressure in an elderly patient puts him at a greater risk of getting a heart attack or stroke. Male health also experiences a period of menopause just like women do. The male hormones normally referred to as the androgens do drop although not as first as in the case of women. The decrease in the level of androgens is usually signified by poor sex drive, changing of body shape and muscle mass, weight gain, sweating, flushing, fatigue, and general aches that are accompanied by low mood swings (Rai, 2004). These symptoms may due to the presence of other medical conditions such as anemia, thyroid gland dysfunction, depression, marital problems, job dissatisfaction, financial problems, and alcohol misuse. Issues related to weight gain may also lead elderly men to suffer from diabetes. Chronic illnesses that occur in old age also include coronary diseases arthritis, hearing, and vision disorders. These chronic diseases in the elderly reduce life expectancy as they progress to their adverse stages. Since most of the diseases are not curable, the medical professionals only treat the symptoms of the disease as they occur and act in a measure to reduce the amount of pain the patients may be suffering. This confines the elderly men to one place normally medical hospitals where they are ever on medication. It is worth noting that the medications they receive sometimes may bring side effects that may lead to further medical complications (Foreman, (2001). This leads to a lot of distress for the elderly patients and leaves them with no hope for getting better from their health conditions. They fail to understand why the medication they receive cannot relieve them completely of the pain they suffer. Such chronic diseases end up compiling so many challenges on the elderly and they become unable to accept the condition and this leads to depression. Chronic diseases normally come with the impairment of most of the body parts and this interferes with the normal functioning of the body. Chronic diseases normally affect individuals for a long period of time and some of them may not be able to cope with the unbearable pain. The transforming of the body from normal functioning to being bed-ridden for a couple of years and always being under medical supervision is itself enough distress to cause depression in elderly men. The fact that these diseases are not curable makes them sure of the occurrence of death and this also leads to depression. Some may even seek to get physician-assisted suicide in order to end their lives and be saved the agony of living with pain every day (Tobbin, S.S, 1983). The occurrence of chronic diseases in elderly men makes life change abruptly and one has to cope with the changes that may result. They usually have to bear with the chronic pain for the rest of their lives and if this pain is not properly managed it may lead to difficulty in maintaining the normal functioning of the body, anxiety, depression, social isolation, poor appetite, and trouble in sleeping. The elderly men owing to their gender have to try and be courageous in facing the complications and the discomforts that come with living with chronic diseases (Rai, 2004). The elderly normally think that living with chronic is just a normal part of growing old and therefore nothing can be done about it. This leads to depression and worsening of the pain and other medical-related complications. Being diagnosed with a chronic illness is a bitter pill to swallow for everyone including the elderly. This is because an individual makes an angle of change and coping with such change can be very frustrating knowing that the future of such a disease is death. Most elderly patients of chronic react to the diagnosis of chronic diseases with a lot of denials. They cannot accept the fact that their lives will assume big changes in all aspects due to medical conditions. They result in anger and self-blame especially if such chronic diseases are associated with their earlier lifestyles. One becomes more of a disabled person and you have to be in constant attention of other people for assistance even for the simple chores like going to the toilet. The identity of a person is usually lost due to the loss of the duties that one may have been involved in. The lives of such elderly men become everybody’s issue and they lose their independence and self-image (Filene, P, 1981). They end up feeling that the goals and dreams that they had planned for the future are all lost since they will never be able to be healthy again to achieve those goals. The occurrence of chronic diseases changes the relationships that the elderly had with other people since they cannot be able to take control of any situations. This leads to spiritual and emotional distress and thus leading to depression. Owing to the changes in life that result from chronic diseases, it is very important for the medical professionals and family members to offer the required support to these elderly men to avoid the occurrence of depression. It is very difficult for such men to accept that they can no longer achieve any goals in life due to their health conditions. It is normally recommended that such elderly persons with chronic illnesses be put under palliative treatment as a way of reducing their distress and agony that may lead to depression (Kirby, 2001 Counseling is also very important to enable them to understand that their condition is not the end of everything in their life. They should be convinced that with proper maintenance, diet, and medical care they can live longer than they may expect. The diagnosis of the chronic disease may require that an elderly patient goes under surgery in order to remove body parts that may be affected and which may pose further health risks if they are not removed. Diseases such as diabetes may cause blockage of the arteries through the hardening of arteries. It has been proven that 30-40% of patients with diabetes end up having amputations of either their arms or the legs (Crome, 1994). Diabetic patients are also frequently affected with ulcers and the only way of removing them is through amputations. Hardening of the arteries is very common in men who are involved in smoking. The majority of them end up with amputations of vascular diseases. When the hardening of the arteries becomes very severe, it becomes very painful for the patients and the only way to solve the problem is through amputations. If such amputations are not performed in time, the infection can spread to other areas and this may threaten the life of the patient (Seymour D.G, 1989). Amputations result in a personal loss of body parts and such patients may not be able to properly walk again or perform the duties they were used to. Amputations performed on patients who suffer from dementia, severe kidney, and heart disease are normally not able to walk again. Surgical operations on the elderly normally come with risks the major one being the risk of death. Other complications may include chest infections, heart attacks, and stroke. The issue of mobility is usually restricted after amputation and this may develop a pressure sore. Other risks include the infections that may occur on the wound. If the wound does not heal, it means that the patient may undergo further amputation to correct the first one or remove the whole part that was amputated. The amputated body parts will never function in the same way as before the surgery. Surgery may also result in blood clots due to the tying during the operation and also immobility after surgery. Elderly men find it very difficult to cope with the loss of body parts such as the limbs and they decline to undergo medical rehabilitation (Armour, 2002). Most elderly men who have undergone amputation have resulted in trauma and depression since they cannot accept the loss and also the impaired functioning of the body. It poses a great challenge for them to understand the benefits of such surgery. The elderly also face a common infection of their ears, nose, and also throat. A big percentage of the elderly in America have been diagnosed with problems of hearing. Hearing loss can be hereditary and it can also result from diseases that are associated with old age such as trauma and long-term exposure to the medication. Surgery in elder patients sometimes has to be approached with a lot of caution since this may lead to more complications due to the age factor. Surgeries such as cataract surgery are not clear on the benefits to the patients. This is because the patients may be suffering from other conditions such as diabetes that may influence the outcome of such surgeries (Jennifer L, 2000). Loss of the ability to hear for many patients resulted in a lot of worry and upsetting. Most the elderly patients with such problems often use listening aids to enable them cope with the challenges. Other surgical procedures such as the ostomy continue to be performed on elderly patients and they can tolerate the results with minimal movements. However, the performing of this procedure on the older patients brings more complications and longer length of days in the hospital than with the younger patients. The elder patients suffer from chronic diseases and are at higher risk of going for surgery than when they were in their younger years (Crome, 1994). Even though surgery comes with a lot of complications such as loss of body parts, it should not be denied to such patients but should be performed as a matter of urgency. The patients should then be rehabilitated in order to help them accept the physical changes that have resulted from such surgeries and help them understand the importance as a measure to prolong and preserve life. The advanced age of the elderly men makes them become less independent and with increased disability. They may become progressively impaired in the normal functioning of the body. In this case, some may find it difficult to walk, lose eyesight, hearing, and even memory. The onset of such conditions makes such elderly men became less independent and they have to rely on other people for help. The elderly men who suffer from very severe chronic illnesses normally lose their independence since they cannot be able to attend to themselves due to their medical condition. They are forced to live in conditions which other people have decided on and they normally have no control over this. Some end up living in homes for the elderly while others have to rely on the caregivers to feed them, wash them, and clothe them. Independence may be lost due to the physical or mental illness of the elderly. Elderly men may lose their independence due to economic and psychological factors (Gormally, 2008). In some cases, the conditions members of these elderly men may be too far to enable them to give the required care. The elderly may be too sick to stay alone and this necessitates the need for them to relocate to new environments such as living with their relatives and being taken to institutions such as homes for the aged. In these new environments, they lose their independence and start worrying about the inadequacies of long-term care that have begun in their lives. They usually feel like they are under bondage since they are denied their freedom and are under constant watch by their caregivers. Many elderly men object to the idea of living in nursing homes due to fear of being mistreated by the caregivers in such homes. The elderly men feel that going to nursing homes does not only make them lose their independence but also the life savings they have struggled for in their lives (Nancy, 1978). Loss of independence for the aged men results in tremendous frustration, feelings of being useless, and sadness due to the fear of losing control over their lives. The fact that they may be unable to attend to the ordinary activities that they were used to becomes extremely frustrating. Losing independence results to fear of how they will manage life. They start getting the anxiety of having close friends and relatives attend to them for the very basic cores they were used to doing on their own. Fear then drives them to the anger of being unable to manage life on their own and they may react this anger to the loved ones who may be attending to them(Jennifer L,2000). They also become very guilty and refuse to receive any help from their relatives and friends because they feel that they are being a burden to them others become very confused on whether to receive any help or not. Some may end up preferring to cope with the challenges and it becomes very difficult for them to receive help especially from individuals outside the family. The body impairments in the elderly such as hearing impairments, inability to walk, and loss of eyesight among other impairments pose a great challenge for elderly men to maintain their independence. As they continue to seek medical help, their savings are continually spent on the medications, and with time they find themselves economically dependent on other people for their basic needs. Their health conditions may be very adverse such that they are unable to attend to themselves for any simple task. They always feel that their privacy is being interfered with yet they do not have any strength and ability to engage in life on their own. The cases of dementia become the most vulnerable for loss of independence since these individuals don’t have control of their minds. They keep forgetting and repeating things and this means that they cannot manage life on their own without the help of other people (Armour, 2002). Life is not easy for the elderly men to lose their freedom of attending to themselves and having other people attend to them. It is frustrating for them especially owing to their gender as the ones who should be offering the support. The loss of independence in most elderly men may lead to impairment in cognitive function. The loss of memory and cognitive function is a common disorder that affects both men and women in old age. The impairment of the cognitive function is demonstrated by the inability to respond quickly or delay to answer an immediate call. The cognitive function enables one to become aware of the things that are said to him and also comprehend ideas. Once it has been impaired in the elderly men, they are unable to embrace the quality of knowing things around them which may include recognition, sensing, thinking, reasoning, remembering, and also imagination. Once individuals suffer from such disorders it becomes very difficult for them to react to situations. The individuals are also unable to utilize the information that they may have acquired. The mental functioning becomes very slow and responding to situations becomes a big challenge for them. The loss of cognitive function may be demonstrated by difficulty in thinking, episodes of memory loss, amnesia, confusion, and lack of proper coordination of things (Rai, 2004). Aging is one of the greatest reasons that cause memory loss in elderly men. Aging is a natural process that causes the brain to decline in its function. The memory becomes unable to store and retrieve short-term memory, employ simple reasoning and also learn new information and ideas. Old age in many also comes with a lot of neurological diseases which may directly contribute to the loss of memory and impairment of cognitive function. Memory loss can result from the cumulative damage of the brain over time as one age. It can also result from the decline of very key hormones that starts at the age of 40 (Kirby, 2001). The lifestyle that these individuals may have lived over the years such as smoking, drinking, drug abuse, among others may lead to diseases that may limit the proper circulation of oxygen in the brain thus interfering with its proper functioning. The aged may also experience changes in the diet which may lead to poor nutrient absorption thus the brain may be deficient in important nutrients. Such factors may lead the brain cells to lack enough energy and this may result in poor out put. Loss of memory in the elderly can also result from the effects of the medication that they take to correct other impairments in the body. Adverse effects of such drugs may result from too low or too high a dosage of the medication. The issue of taking numerous drugs for different complications may also lead to effects of output brain damage. For example, elderly patients who are on the Leuprolide Acetate medication have been reported to experience short-term memory loss. Others experience various disturbances in memory loss. Patients on such medication may start having episodic problems with confusion and also emotional changes (Armour, 2002). The older generation is also known to be the greatest consumers of prescription and over-the-counter medication. In this case, they are more likely to experience more health complications due to the mixing reactions of such drugs. This places them at a greater risk of memory loss. The elderly men may also end up overdosing or under-dosing themselves with the drugs that are prescribed to them and this may lead to further complications. The prescribed drugs to treat cases such as depression and dementia may result in the slow functioning of the brain. It can therefore be concluded that drug administration in the elderly should be done with a lot of caution since it may itself become a problem to the elderly through its side effect (Rai, 2004). The community today has been challenged in its approach to caring for the elderly men within us. Most people have adopted an individual life and people no longer care so much about this group of elderly persons. The few community-based groups that may be willing to take care of the elderly face various constraints that constrict the efficiency of the service to the elderly. They lack proper financing and lack support services from other care organizations within the community. These groups also lack enough manpower to participate in the community care for the aged (Gormally, 2008) Lack of finance makes it very difficult for the small percentage of the willing in the community to progress with their projects directed to the elderly men. The setting up of the nursing homes also becomes a challenge since such institutions cannot be run without the finances. People in the community are generally busy with other chores and trying to make their ends meet. This makes it very difficult for such people to be involved in the community services for the elderly. Time becomes the greatest problem in attending to the elderly. Most people in western families are born within the family set up and everything, in their lives normally revolves around the family. It is therefore very difficult for the community to come in place in old age (Connidis, 1989). Most families find it easier to take elderly persons to the nursing homes since they do not get much attention in the community and the family may not be available for them too. Lack of caregivers especially for the chronically ill is a very big challenge in getting reliable caregivers. Getting such community services also becomes a challenge for the elderly since their incomes are constrained. They cannot be able to pay for the finances that may be provided by the available community services. The issues related to the elderly call for constant medical care and also home care. This requires the availability of adequate resources that are required for such expenses. The treatments of most of the diseases that are suffered by the elderly are usually very expensive. The elderly may also be hospitalized for long periods and this may become a very big challenge for the family financially. The chronically ill especially may require continued medical support which is very expensive. Unfortunately, most of this aged people live alone and with limited incomes. This limits the ability for them to obtain proper health care, goods, services, and also housing (Terry, 2001). In conclusion, the conditions that elderly men have to go through are the main leading causes of depression in elderly men. This is because age and the many health complications limit their independence and therefore it becomes very difficult to take control of their own lives. Lack of proper care may also lead to depression since most of them will have depleted their savings. With the onset of chronic diseases, the economic hardships and becomes very difficult to cope with. The family members may be too busy to give them the critical care required while the community may turn out to be very ignorant. It is therefore very important that the government should be more responsible for the aged since lack of any help to them leads to more frustrations. References Carolyn A. Chew-graham. (2008) Integrated Management of Depression in the Elderly. Cambridge university press. Chris Childers. (2001). Contribution of Chronic Conditions to Aggregate Changes in Old-Age Functioning. New York, Polisher Research Institute Clay, John. (1989). Men at Midlife: The Facts… the Fantasies… the Future. London: Sedgwick & Jackson. Connidis, I. A. (1989). Family Ties and Aging. Toronto: Butter worths/Harcourt Brace. David Armour. (2002).Medicines in the Elderly. UK, Pharmaceutical Press. Dr Michael G. Kirby. (2001).Men’s Health. Routledge, UK. Farrell, Michael P., and Stanley D. Rosenberg. (1981). Men at Midlife. Boston: Auburn House Publishing Co. Filene, P. (1981). Men in the Middle. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Gates, Richard, and Robin Hammond. (1994). After the Ball is over: Men in Midlife. Armidale: University of New England Press. Hillman, Jennifer L. (2000). Clinical Perspectives on Elderly Sexuality. New York: Kluwer Academic Press. Jones, Terry. (2001). The Elder Within: The Source of Mature Masculinity. Book partners. Liberman, M.A & Tobbin, S.S (1983). The experience of old age, stress, coping and survival. New York: Basic Books. Luke Gormally. (2008).The Dependent Elderly. Cambridge University Press Marquis Foreman, et al. (2001).Critical Care Nursing of the Elder. US, Springer Publishing Co Mayer, Nancy. (1978). The Male Mid-Life Crisis: Fresh starts after forty. Doubleday. Paul Gilbert. (2000).Overcoming Depression.Robinson Publishing Peter Crome. (1994).Medical Care of the Elderly. UK, Oxford University Press. Rai. (2004). Medical Ethics And the Elderly. Radcliffe Pub. Seymour D.G. (1989). A prospective study of elderly general surgical patients: II. Post operative complications. Washington. D.C Tim Cantopher. (2006).Depressive illness-curse of the strong. Sheldon Press.2006)

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11174 Introduction To Management

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