Diabetes Management and Pharmacological Effects
Pharmacological Effects of Herbal Supplements in the Management of Diabetes and Nursing Implications Management of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder. Chronic disorder (Chang et al., 2013). Two types of diabetes to manage. Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent. Type 2 diabetes is noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Disease management depends on the type. Herbal Supplements in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus About 400 herbs have anti-diabetic properties. Controlling glucose (Obiedo & Elizon, 2015). Herbal supplements also regulate glucose absorption. Some herbs control the ????-cell function. Herbs are used in combination therapies. Herbal supplements represent an alternative therapy. Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Address Insulin Resistance Licorice controls glucose metabolism activating PPAR-????. Dioscorea decreases the phosphorylation of ERK. Reduces insulin resistance (Chang et al., 2013). Blueberry’s antioxidants neutralize free radicals. Astragalus reduces insulin resistance activating Akt. Gastrodia elata potentially decreases fat accumulation. Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Control ????-Cell Function Pandanus amaryllifolius significantly addresses hyperglycemia. Tabernaemontana divaricate improves producing ????-cells. Nymphaea stellate contributes to generating ????-cells. Silybum marianum improves the ????-cell function. Bidenspilosa reduces blood glucose levels. Activating ????-cells (Chang et al., 2013). Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Control Glucose Absorption Some herbs control the ????-glucosidase activity. Safflower improves the insulin secretion. Safflower also reduces the ????-glucosidase activity. Laminaria japonica effectively controls glucose absorption. Butyl-isobutyl-phthalate affects the ????-glucosidase activity. Addressed absorption (Chang et al., 2013). Nursing Implications and Conclusion Herbal supplements add to anti-diabetic therapies. Herbal supplements are comparably safe. Effects are in influencing metabolic pathways. Prescribed herbs decrease the medication dosage. Nurses should focus on drug-and-herb interactions. Herbal supplements improve patient outcomes. Pharmacological Effects of Metformin Medications in the Management of Diabetes and Nursing Implications Management of Type 2 Diabetes Associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Disease management requires the pharmacological therapy. Lifestyle interventions are required and recommended. Combination of pharmacological therapies and interventions. Metformin is used to treat diabetes. Recommended medication (Rojas & Gomes, 2013). Using Metformin for Managing Type 2 Diabetes Metformin is a first-line medication. Commonly used (Napolitano et al., 2014). Early usage of Metformin is expected. Effects on reducing glucose are significant. Monotherapy based on Metformin is possible. Combination therapies should include Metformin. Pharmacological Effects of Metformin Medications Positive effects (Rojas & Gomes, 2013). Metformin decreases glucose in the liver. The upstream kinase is activated. LKB-1 is also effectively activated. Synthesis of gluconeogenic enzymes is regulated. Effects on gut micro-biome changes. Effects of Metformin as the Part of the Combination Therapy Metformin should be combined with insulin. Decreases in HbA1c to about 2%. Metformin can be combined with sulfonylureas. Expected effects regarding HbA1c are lower. Oral usage (Napolitano et al., 2014). Metformin is safe, improving metabolic processes. Possible Adverse Effects of Metformin Medications Gastrointestinal intolerance (Napolitano et al., 2014). Pharmacological effects improve when decreasing doses. Doses should generally be adjusted. Can be administered with meals. Vitamin B12 absorption can become reduced. Rare adverse effects include allergic pneumonitis. Pharmacology and Drug Interactions Rare interactions (Rojas & Gomes, 2013). Positive outcomes because of rare interactions. Interactions are with morphine, amiloride, procainamide. Pharmacological effects can be decreased. Some interactions cause gastrointestinal side-effects. Dosage of Metformin should be regulated. Nursing Implications and Concluding Remarks Positive pharmacological effects are proven. Metformin is a pre-diabetes drug. Nurses focus on Metformin’s macrovascular outcomes. The medication is viewed as safe. The low-level toxicity is reported. Actively used in anti-diabetic therapies. References Chang, C. L., Lin, Y., Bartolome, A. P., Chen, Y. C., Chiu, S. C., & Yang, W. C. (2013). Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013(1), 1-33.
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Napolitano, A., Miller, S., Nicholls, A. W., Baker, D., Van Horn, S., Thomas, E.,… Nunez, D. J. (2014). Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PloS One, 9(7), 1-14. Obiedo, A., & Elizon, L. (2015). Diabetes mellitus management: Herbal or prescribed medication. CNU Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 162-172. Rojas, L. B. A., & Gomes, M. B. (2013). Metformin: An old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 5(6), 1-15.