Epidemiological Studies On Obesity On Global

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Epidemiological Studies On Obesity On Global

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Epidemiological Studies On Obesity On Global

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Epidemiological Studies on Obesity on Global Scale?


The recent concerns regarding obesity has made a large number of scientists to conduct various types of epidemiological studies. All the papers provided by them are based on the prevalence of obesity at a national or global level, the different factors that lead to obesity in different nations as well the various disorders that it results in different organism (Phelan et al., 2015). With the occurrence of an obese condition in patients, different types of morbidities and mortalities are associated which is also discussed in the different papers. The review below will help in depicting such epidemiological papers to provide more light on the topic.
A research article was published by authors Steier et al. in the year 2015 which is based on the observational cross sectional study which is a type of epidemiological study determined from a group of population or from a specific subset. The study mainly shows how the occurrence of obesity results in a harmful effect on the respiratory system of different individuals. The lung volume and elasticity of the respiratory system of different individuals were taken into consideration. For this cross sectional observational studies, nine obese and nine normal weight patients were taken into consideration both in the seated and also in the supine condition mainly during spontaneous breathing. The researchers mainly took the help of multi-breath helium method dilution. The recording was mainly done with the help of balloon catheters, esophageal Poe as well as gastric Pgas pressures. This research had shown that the BMI of obese group to be higher in comparison to that of the  normal group and expiratory reserve volume has decreased to a high level.. Moreover their end-tidal functional residual capacity was also found to be lower when both the groups were seated but they were similar in supine condition. Gastric pressure was again elevated as well as with their end-expiratory esophageal pressures at FRC. All of these measurements had shown that obese individuals are more prone to increase in their esophageal pressures as well as gastric pressures both in the supine and the seated positions.  These had therefore resulted in reduction in FRC as well as ERV. This scenario indicates that due to the mechanism, a pressure is created on the working procedure of the lungs and as a result various disorders take place. Therefore in this way, the researchers have become successful in linking severe obesity with that of respiratory morbidity and also mortality and hence obesity becomes a concern for anyone who might get affected due to pulmonary diseases.
The next study was conducted by the Skinner et al. in the year 2015 in order to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors that were associated with the children and also with the young adults. It had been a case study as all the participants were already exposed to the disorder and cases were depicted with affected participants only and a cross sectional analysis was done. It has been found that the prevalence of cardio metabolic risks is relatively low for the overweight individuals but is highly risky for children who are severely obese. With the growing age, risks associated with the disorder intensify and therefore the authors have advised to initiate a screening program in order to fight the risks associated with severe obesity. The authors had therefore performed a cross sectional analysis of the data that had been taken from overweight as well as the obese children and young adults. The age of such children varied from 3 to 19 years and was considered for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 up to 2012. It was done for checking the prevalence of different types of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders depending o severity of the obesity. A number of markers of cardiovascular disorders were taken into considerations like the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin. Most of the mean values showed considerably higher values in the individuals with severe obesity in male and females with the number being higher in males. Lower HDL level was found in children with greater severity and lower the HDL, it is more harmful for the physiological system. It was predicted by the authors that low levels of HDL, high systolic and diastolic pressure along with high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels automatically exposes the children to higher threats for cardiovascular disease. Therefore scientists have successfully showed how severity of obesity can act as a threat to different cardio metabolic risk factors making mainly boys and young men exposed to cardiovascular diseases.
An important paper was published in the year 2013 by authors like Halfon et al. who also reported the effect of obesity on children. It is a cross sectional analysis study. However this study was not a case study like the previous one but was a cross sectional analysis as the patients who were selected were not already obese. It was also not a cohort study as comparisons were also not made between the newly exposed or unexposed children. The population based study was done on 43297 children whose weight was known from parent report of height and weight. Moreover the authors like the previous on did not only consider on the risks associated with the cardiovascular diseases but also used 21 important indicators that belonged to the domains like psychosocial functioning, general health, health disorders which adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Reports have suggested the obese children who were found to face activity restrictions, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, school problems, grade repetition as well as missed classes in schools. Other important disorders were also found in the obese children like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as conduct disorder. Learning disability depression,  and developmental delay are also been found to be some of the harmful effects. Moreover bone, joint and muscles issues also remain closely associated. Other diseases that have been also reported is the asthma, allergies, ear infections and also headaches. Therefore the researchers have advised the physicians, teachers and the parents to understand the specific co morbidities and thereby develop interventions that will enhance the well being of the children who are obese.
Another important article was published in the year 2014 by the authors Jagielski et al. where they have successfully established an association within the adiposity, mental condition and well being of an individual as well as Quality of Life in cases of severe obesity. This is a case study type of epidemiology where the participants who were already obese patients were chosen and were sent to the service where the interview was conducted with the help of questionnaires. The sample mainly constituted 263 extreme obese individuals. Two important scales that were utilized by the authors were Impact of Weight on Quality of Life: IWQOL-Lite, EQ5D-3L, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS).  An interesting result was seen by the authors. Increasing adiposity in the individuals was associated with quality of life negatively therefore stating that they share indirect relationship between the two factors. They have also stated that with increase in adiposity, there is decrease in physical function, public distress, lowers self esteem, poor productivity at work and others. The level of adiposity had resulted in increase in risk of different problems in mobility. Moreover it also resulted in increase in difficulties in performing different usual activities. Moreover, symptoms of depression as well as anxiety were also found to be high in case of patients who are extremely obese. Hence the researchers have been successful in properly establishing the negative effects that rise in adipose levels have on quality lives of the people who are suffering from obesity. Researchers have therefore suggested that clinical implications should be discussed which will contain the needs for incorporating the different interventions that will help in the improvement of mental  condition as well as well being into interventions of the the multi-disciplinary weight management.
An interesting article has been published by Johanssen et al. in the year 2014. They had conducted a cohort study on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and that of the risk of infant mortality. The cohort study was conducted in Sweden from about 1.95023 women with 1 857 822 live single births who were recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1992 to 2010. It has been found called a cohort study because comparison was made between the normal weight mothers and that of the overweight mothers when considering the BMI of the mothers and its effect on the birth of their babies. The main factors on which the entire investigation was based were gestational length as well as the infant death while studying the association between the maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy with that of infant, neonatal and also postneonatal mortality. An interesting result was found. Infant mortality rates increased from 2.4 in 1000 births in normal cases to 5.8 per 1000 births in overweight mothers. The increased rate of mortality was moderate in case of overweight and obese I patients and were very high in mothers with obesity II and Obesity III disorders. The infant mortality rate doubled in case of obesity grade 3 patients. It was found by the researchers that birth asphyxia and other neonatal morbidities increased with that of maternal overweight and obesity. Increased mortality rate in term births as well as increased prevalence in the rate in preterm births is the main results and hence maternal overweight and obesity should be managed.
With the above mentioned epidemiological studies, one can easily understand the various harmful effects that obesity has on children and adults. Not only physically, obesity also affects mentally in such a way that quality of life also gets affected. Therefore obesity has become one of the main concerns of every nation and hence epidemiological studies will be extremely helpful in developing interventions and addressing every issue in proper manner.
Alpert, M. A., Omran, J., Mehra, A., & Ardhanari, S. (2014). Impact of obesity and weight loss on cardiac performance and morphology in adults. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 56(4), 391-400.
Bickenbach, K. A., Denton, B., Gonen, M., Brennan, M. F., Coit, D. G., & Strong, V. E. (2013). Impact of obesity on perioperative complications and long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer. Annals of surgical oncology, 20(3), 780-787.
De Schutter, A., Lavie, C. J., & Milani, R. V. (2014). The impact of obesity on risk factors and prevalence and prognosis of coronary heart disease—the obesity paradox. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 56(4), 401-408.
DeMarco, V. G., Aroor, A. R., & Sowers, J. R. (2014). The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(6), 364-376.
Fischer, J. P., Nelson, J. A., Kovach, S. J., Serletti, J. M., Wu, L. C., & Kanchwala, S. (2013). Impact of obesity on outcomes in breast reconstruction: analysis of 15,937 patients from the ACS-NSQIP datasets. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 217(4), 656-664.
Halfon, N., Larson, K., & Slusser, W. (2013). Associations between obesity and comorbid mental health, developmental, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to 17. Academic pediatrics, 13(1), 6-13.
Jagielski, A. C., Brown, A., Hosseini-Araghi, M., Thomas, G. N., & Taheri, S. (2014). The association between adiposity, mental well-being, and quality of life in extreme obesity. PloS one, 9(3), e92859.
Johansson, S., Villamor, E., Altman, M., Bonamy, A. K. E., Granath, F., & Cnattingius, S. (2014). Maternal overweight and obesity in early pregnancy and risk of infant mortality: a population based cohort study in Sweden. Bmj, 349, g6572.
Phelan, S. M., Burgess, D. J., Yeazel, M. W., Hellerstedt, W. L., Griffin, J. M., & Ryn, M. (2015). Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. obesity reviews, 16(4), 319-326.
Skinner, A. C., Perrin, E. M., Moss, L. A., & Skelton, J. A. (2015). Cardiometabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(14), 1307-1317.
Steier, J., Lunt, A., Hart, N., Polkey, M. I., & Moxham, J. (2014). Observational study of the effect of obesity on lung volumes. Thorax, 69(8), 752-759.
Tseng, C. H. (2013). Obesity paradox: differential effects on cancer and noncancer mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis, 226(1), 186-19

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