Food Wastage Recycling In Australia

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Food Wastage Recycling In Australia

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Food Wastage Recycling In Australia

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Discuss about the Food Wastage Recycling in Australia.

The increased production of the food waste is both a national as well as global problem. One of the most concerns of the solid food waste is the generation of the emissions of greenhouse gases such as methane as well as carbon dioxide. Many studies are undertaken to assess the food waste in Australia. There are number of barriers to effective food waste management within Australia (Reynolds, 2013). The barriers are complexity in the production of food, lack of established infrastructure as well as technology for alternative treatment over food waste as well as lack of consumer awareness. Various techniques are used by Australia to reduce the food wastage (Verghese et al., 2015). It consists of education to the customers, investment in the waste treatment infrastructure and collection of food for redistribution. The purpose of this project report is to aware people of Australia about that the breaks down in the landfill create methane and other greenhouse gases.
The report is based on recycling of the food waste in Australia so that they can reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. Project scope and objectives are discussed so that the project internal and external stakeholders came to know about the purpose of this project report. The entire project plan is analyzed using two-analysis model such as SWOT and Porter’s Five Force Model. It is useful to identify the strength and weakness of the Australian Government to reduce the food wastage. Assumptions and constraints are made so that the project should complete with time and budget. Finally, the report summarizes the project into a literature review with details of cost and time management, stakeholders, project governance and communication management.
Project Information
Project Background
Each year, the Australians are throwing away an estimated of three million tones of $5.2 billion of food. Most of them are uneaten leftovers and spoiled vegetables as well as fruits. Therefore, the Australian government has taken possible steps to minimize the food wastages, reduction of food scraps and reduction of emission of CO2 (Lane & Dawes, 2013). The Government of Australia focuses on promoting strategic awareness on the outcomes of food wastage as well as gives standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There are some of the key steps to manage the food wastage such as support for the agricultural efficiency, effective use of packaging, household education and investment in alternative treatment technology (Kosseva & Webb, 2013). The purpose of the project plan is to diminish the food waste in Australia as well as generate a waste management program.

Chart 1: Percentage of sources of food waste in Australia
(Source: Lane & Dawes, 2013, pp-29)
The goal of this project plan is to use less and waste less of the resources of earth through instilling of environmental sustainable culture in Australia people’s daily lives. Its goal is to eliminate the wastes as well as cuts the cost (Ghosh et al., 2015). From the above chart, it is seen that 44% of the food is wasted from the residential and lowest amount from the industries. Therefore, Australia requires recycling their food waste into useful resources with the organic recycling. Two processes are used to recycle the food waste such as:
In-vessel composting: In this process, the food waste is mixed with the garden wastes as well as used compostable packaging. It increases the surface enclosed with composting vessel for around 2-4 weeks (Binnemans et al., 2015). The result is the nutrient rich fertilizer that is used to improve the soil as well as growing of plants.

Figure 1: In-vessel composting
(Source: Binnemans et al., 2015, pp-26)
Anaerobic digestion: Its uses the microorganisms in order to break down the food waste in absence of oxygen (Song, Li & Zeng, 2015). This process is used to produce biogas that is the mixture of both methane as well as carbon dioxide that are used to produce heat as well as electricity.

Figure 2: Anaerobic digestion recycling process
(Source: Song, Li & Zeng, 2015, pp-203)
Project Analysis
SWOT Analysis
The SWOT analysis of the recycling of wastage of food in Australia is presented in relation to wide range of factors to provide with a current food waste management processes within Australia (Vlotman & Ballard, 2014). From analysis on the food wastage in Australia, there are various strengths; weakness, opportunities as well as threats are analyzed so that the food wastage situation in Australia is being identified. Therefore, the Australian Federal Government can take possible steps to reduce the emissions of methane, which is the cause of global warming as well as carbon dioxide.  
Strengths: The population of Australia wants to keep their town clean, therefore by the establishment of the private initiatives in order to collect the food wastes by the Australian Municipal. The locals are also ready to pay extra fees for their collective service. Australia has decades of experience to collect solid wastes, plastics (Hottle et al., 2015). They have excellent relationships with some of the internal businesses such as Coles, Woolworths that collect the wastes.
Weakness: Due to lack of involvement of various actors in the food waste collection as well as treatment is the weakness of the project plan. Lack of control to the local authority makes it vital to collect the data on waste and aware the population of Australia about the influence of food waste on human health (Cole et al., 2014). The collection of the households waste, provided by the public is vital to systematize. Reports obtained on the waste management in Australia shows some form of inconsistency related to time schedule as well as routes of collection system.
Opportunities: There are potential of an integrated waste management industry that considers a level of commercial activities within the Australian municipality. The wastes in the market value are being reuse through the recycling centers (Stark, 2015). The opportunity for the monitoring services and direction on the regulatory observance as well as good observes exists.
Threats: Within Australia, the bodies of waste are turned into the sewage and unhygienic. The rapid process of urbanization is reported to give unenthusiastic effects on the natural resources of the region (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2016). The most vital threat of Australia is the lack of waste disposal site. The landfill is located at a large distance from the municipality and therefore it exceeds the filling capacity. It gives an immediate solution to the handle the food wastes.

Figure 3: SWOT Analysis on Food Wastage in Australia
(Source: Cole et al., 2014. pp-71)
Porter’s Five Force Analysis
Binnemans et al., (2015) conducted study on the Porter’s Five Forces Analysis on recycling of food wastage. Edwards and Mercer (2012) opined that each industry level force describes the intense challenge to recycle profitability as when compared to disposal industry. Apart from this, integration of this service appears to create some sort of dependency, with recycling advantages the competitive positioning of the landfill in order to compensate for its own structural limitation. The factors of the Porter’s Five Force Analysis are discussed as below:
 Bargaining power of the suppliers: It is low. A vital situation exists when the customers are integrated disposal contract and becomes the supplier of recyclables (Chance & Brooks, 2015). In order to deliver inventory to the commodity buyer, the operators of recyclable must purchase commodities from the customers and suppliers. Within this framework of Porter’s, the powerful suppliers can charge higher prices when the involvements of the suppliers are necessary at each node of value chain (Pritchard & Pmp, 2014). When the recycling is part of the integrated disposal system, then it creates an opportunity for the supplier and customer to demand host of allowances. It can destroy the value that is created by the disposal segment within the chain.   
Bargaining power of the buyers: It is high. Addition of recycling to the waste stream shifts the negotiating power in favor of buyers. In the model of disposal, the landfill owners command the negotiating power by controlling access to essential asset. Within the recycling value chain, there are two types of buyers (Grebby, Jordan & Dijkstra, 2016). First, one is the customers that buy recycling services and the other is the end market buyers of recyclables. The recycling of the food waste has an attractive value proposition when the cost of disposal is high as well as the commodity revenue can equalize the municipal cost (Sadgrove, 2016). The end market buyers are able to establish maximum amount on the value of recyclables, suggesting a high level of negotiation power.
Rivalry among substitute competitors: It is high and the firms are engaged into price wars. It is easy for the firms to change their prices as well as increase in market share. On the other hand, food is required for the human beings (Lehmann & Crocker, 2013). Within the competitive markets, the firms are offering recycling to offer customers a differentiated value proposition. Landfills are creating higher barriers to exist and there are several national players split rational oligopoly within municipal disposal markets (Song, Li & Zeng, 2015). Within disposal value chain, there are no such landfill owners that can differentiate their services. Even they cannot offer location that is more constructive in order to cut down the cost of transportation (Cole et al., 2014). As the demand of the recycling increases, therefore the waste industry is demonstrated with economic profits through the commodity cycle before it claims recycling. It also requires the capability to drive higher prices, low costs as well as integrated recycling system.
Threats of new entrants: It is high. Addition of recycling services to the integrated system protects incumbents against the new entrants by existing control over the overall local waste stream (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2016). At a certain gathering distance, it becomes too expensive in order to course incremental tons at the material recovery facility (MRF) due to high cost of transportation. Stand alone MRF forces to attract the recyclables from the established collection contracts by offering higher rebate that can destroy value when the goods resale values are low (Grebby, Jordan & Dijkstra, 2016). The integrated system can demonstrate higher barriers to entry as compared to stand-alone recycling operations.   
Threat of substitutes: There are high threats of substitutes as many researchers those are doing recent anti-food wastage campaigns. The most significant form of recycling of food waste is landfill-based disposal that is the most dominant form of handling of waste. Within the market where the cost of land-based disposal is high, recycling offers the customers with cost savings up to a point (Jurgilevich et al.,2016). When the cost of landfill is low, the customers are not demanding for recycling if the service is expensive. The operators of recycling lose value by offering higher customer rebates to recycle demand. Because the recycling operations are resource intensive, therefore the customer must pay a high price for the provision of recycling services to get attractive returns on the invested capital (Vlotman & Ballard, 2014). The economic intensive for the customers to do landfill disposal is cheaper, even revenue of commodity factored in.

Chart 2: Porter’s Five Force Analysis on Australia’s food wastage
(Source: Vlotman & Ballard, 2014, pp-239)
Project Scope
The project is based on recycling of food waste in Australia. The recycling of food wastage project in Australia provides understanding of the fundamentals of the project management (Thyberg & Tonjes, 2016). The scope of this project is to become familiar with planning a project. The project work focuses on the time and cost management required to schedule the plan according to the estimated time. The scope of this project plan is to conduct food waste audits with the participating businesses to determine both volume as well as weight of the food waste (Vlotman & Ballard, 2014). The cost management is done for the critical components in the collection of food as well as composting systems. The main scope of the project plan is to diminish the harmful influences of the food waste so that it can offer environmental friendly as well as green solutions to the population of Australia (Lehmann & Crocker, 2013). The extent of this anticipate arrangement is to mindful the number of inhabitants in Australia about the risks that can happen because of wastage of sustenance. By teaching individuals about the shirking of sustenance wastage and procedure of reusing, it makes the gathering of recyclables more compelling.
High level WBS




Food Waste Recycling




   Event Objectives


   Project Approval


      Decide potential charities


      Establishment of contacts with the charity


      Confirm proposal with the charity


   Identification of the risks


      Plan to mitigate the risk


Activity Planning


   Meetings with the stakeholders




   Agenda of the project plan




   Target the fundraising


   Analysis of cost


   Analysis of donation




   Identify the needs of equipments to collect the food waste


      Set up a workshop




   Invitation to the participants to join the recycling plan


      Use of communication method to convey messages


   Review of risk


      Solution of the risk


Data Analysis


   Survey the market


   Evaluation and feedback


   Handout paper survey


   Social media feedback survey

Objectives, Assumptions and Perceived Constraints
Project Objectives
The objectives of the project plan are to:

To minimize the generation of food waste in Australia
To maximize the reuse as well as recycling of the food wastages
To develop waste management practices in cooperation with the community
To aware the audiences and develop educational program
To ensure waste management within safe areas of Australia

Assumptions of the project
In order to estimate the food waste, several assumptions are taken. First of all in order to successfully complete the project plan, some of the assumptions are made such as the project should complete within the time that is estimated to complete (Laurent et al., 2014). All the resources as well as equipments required for the project plan are to be estimated properly so that the food wastes are recycled accurately. Time and cost estimation is also required. It is assumed that all the population of Australia is aware of the hazards that are faced due to food waste. They are aware of the facts that it can produce methane as well as carbon dioxide that are harmful for the health of human beings (Pfaltzgraff et al., 2013). Proper project plan is done so that the initial set up for collecting the food waste is not financially costly.
Constraints of the project
In each of the projects there are three types of vital constraints such as time, cost and scope. The project scope is not clear to the audiences. The deliverables of the project plan are not mentioned (Song, Li & Zeng, 2015). The schedule of the project plan is not scheduled properly so that not all the components are delivered in time, so that the project team is not able to complete the plan within time. The cost constraints for this project plan consist of financial limitation of the resources input to the project as well as there is an overall limitation over the estimated amount (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2016). As it is known as the initial set up cost for food waste collection is costly, therefore it is one of the vital cost constraints for recycling the wastes. Due to sudden rise in the cost estimation amount, it is seen that the time taken to complete the project plan also increases (Grebby, Jordan & Dijkstra, 2016). The issue is that change make in any of the constraints will affect the other two constraints. It is seen that increase in scope of the project is likely to need more and more time as well as cost.     
Expected outcomes/benefits
The project is based on food wastage recycle in Australia. In order to keep the food wastes out of the landfills helps the Australian populations to have many benefits of the food cycler (Gatzert & Schmit, 2016). Therefore, the amount of wastes is reduced and a green solution is given to them. The process of recycling of food waste gives many benefits to the population of Australia such as:
Economic Benefits: By recycling of the food wastes, the Australian businesses are able to reduce the size of the traditional wastes containers. It also lowers the prices of the traditional waste hauling (Zaman & Lehmann, 2013). The use of smaller amounts of containers will cause reduction in the price to collect the food wastes. Finally, the cost is reduced and the Food Waste Disposal passes the lower cost directly to the businesses.
Environmental Benefits: The food wastes have not only had economic impacts in terms of the cost of disposal. It also faces environmental impacts. When the food is being disposed into the landfill, then it becomes a major source of the methane (Vlotman & Ballard, 2014). It is the potent of the greenhouse gas, which is 21 times the global warming probable of the carbon dioxide. Recovering as well as recycling of the food wastes diverts the organic materials from the landfills and thus it reduces the emissions of methane (Bernstad & la Cour Jansen, 2012). The use of recycled food waste improves the health of the soil and thus it raises the resistance of drought. It also results into reduction of the requirements of fertilizers as well as pesticides.
Community Benefits: For over 2000 pounds of the food, wastes are collected from the businesses. It results into reduction of the commercially produced fertilizers as well as needs of transportation (Reynolds, Piantadosi & Boland. 2015). Even it is required to share with the customers about the harmful effects of food waste to the customers in order to support the sustainable practices, which is considered as a valuable marketing opportunity.
Health Benefits: The other benefit of the food waste recycling is that it improves the public safety as well as health. The food waste are dumped into the trashcans, therefore it does not spread diseases (Papargyropoulou et al., 2014). Thus, the food waste disposal process for recycling of the food wastes reduces as well as eliminates the health related problems.
Literature Review
The literature review is based on “Food Wastage Recycling in Australia”. Within the Australian society, introduction of recycling of paper, plastics as well as green wastes are well established, but recycling of food is still a new industry (Reynolds, 2013). The literature reviews of the project topic, business case, project stakeholder, communication, human resources, scope, time and cost management.
Literature Summary on project/program intent, business case, framework and governance
Project Background, Business Case and Framework
According to Turner et al., (2013), Australia has reduced its wastage by 90 percent by recycling its food waste. Due to reduction in the food wastage, Australia has also reduces 40 percent in CO2 emissions. When the food scraps such as vegetable peelings are sent to landfill, then it decomposes without oxygen in order to produce methane and greenhouse gas. If the food scraps are recycled, then the organic matters as well as nutrients are reused as fertilizer (Kosseva & Webb, 2013). The methane as well as other biogases is captured in order to generate electricity. Most of the governments of Australia have policies to reduce as well as recover the food wastes.
Papargyropoulou et al., (2014) opined that the Food and Agriculture Organization works with the both private as well as public sector organizations in order to raise awareness about the food waste. Within Australia, the National Waste Policy offers with a framework for take actions by the Australian federal Government in order to enhance organic resources recovery as well as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill (Chalak et al., 2016). Many options used to recover the food waste for beneficial use. Reynolds et al., (2015) stated that the new markets for recovering the food are driven by various factors such as:
1. Rising in the cost of landfill
2. Governmental policies to reduce food waste (Kerzner, 2013).
3. Growth in the business that recover food for distribution by the charities

Figure 4: Food Waste flows in Australian food production and consumption system
(Source: Reynolds et al., 2015, pp-4717)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of South Australia is an environmental regulator those are responsible to reduce food waste, quality of air and water. It gives a sustainable future to Australia (Lane & Dawes, 2013). There are many key organizations within Australia can collect surplus products for relocation to the charities and gives food release to the homeless. As for example, Foodbank is one of the largest rescue organizations that can operate to redistribute stable, chilled as well as frozen foods. The organization identifies as well as sourcing the surplus products across the food supply chain (foodsouthaustralia.com.au, 2015). It also collects the product from the suppliers and retailers. The other organization, Ozharvest Adelaide works with the registered food business in order to collect the surplus product as well as meals for redistribution through the charities (theguardian, 2015). It also consists of caterers, restaurants, wholesalers, hotels as well as bakeries to reduce the food waste in Australia.

Figure 5: Food Waste Recovery Hierarchy
(Source: (Lane & Dawes, 2013, pp-31)
Project Governance
The following are the project governance with its respective project roles and responsibilities:
Project Director: The person is responsible to manage the project at the strategic level. The Director manages the resources as well as oversees the finances in order to make sure that the project is progressed on time as well as estimated budget (Thyberg & Tonjes, 2016).  
Project Owner: The project owner evaluates the success of project upon completion, review the changes, deliverables, schedule and priorities.
Senior User: The responsibility of the senior user is to ensure the needs of users, commitment of user resources, communicate with the project team and ensure that the solution meets with user’s requirements (Bernstad & la Cour Jansen, 2012).
Senior Supplier: The responsibility of the senior supplier is to ensure that the project plans as well as its specifications are feasible. The supplier ensures that the budgeted supplier cost is managed properly.
Project Manager: the project manager directs the project team, manages the plan, maintains the risk, issues, and reports the project progress to the Project Director and Owner.
Literature Summary on project stakeholder, human resources and communication management

Project Stakeholder
The internal stakeholders are:
1. The project team members
2. Senior management
3. Sustainability team
4. Federal Government
5. Regional Government (Bernstad et al., 2013).
6. Australian Municipal Council
The external stakeholders are:
1. Bureau of International Recycling
2. Visitors of Australia (Schneider et al., 2013).
3. Members of the Australian Food Industry
4. Individual business such as Coles, Woolworths, APC Environmental Consulting
Human Resources
Edwards and Mercer (2012) stated that the success of the food waste management plan is based on the cooperation of various human resource groups. There must be a recycling coordinator who oversees the waste management within an organization. It also consists of health and safety component that identifies the officers those are responsible to train the staffs on waste collection procedures. The food waste is the elimination of the food from the food supply chain at the point fit for the human consumption.
Communication Management
By communicating with the audiences of Australia about the food waste as well as raising awareness about the waste makes an efficient communication management to reduce the food wastage and recycled them. Rafiq et al., (2012) stated that the Australian Municipal that aims to increase food wastage collections and then recycled it starts food Waste communication campaign. The majority of the promotion takes places at the first weeks of the project plan. The communication campaign consists of messages to convey to the population of Australia. The messages are food waste breaks down in the landfill create methane and other greenhouse gases (Laurent et al., 2014). The wastage of food should be recycled into energy in order to power the homes. The Australian Government also should start a community education campaign that is important to the success of the project.
Literature Summary on project scope, time and cost management
Project Scope
The scope of this project plan is to aware the population of Australia about the hazards that can occur due to wastage of food. By educating people about the avoidance of food wastage and process of recycling, it makes the collection of recyclables more effective (Turner et al., 2013). The key objectives of this project are to increase the quality of the recyclable materials and reduce the contamination of the recyclable materials.   
Time and Cost Management
Australian Federal Government set up a right place at the accurate time to access the funding for the initial capital outlay as well as educational programme. Recycling collections within high-density areas are labor intensive and therefore the cost is higher for the collection of food wastes.  Bowen et al., (2012) opined that the cost of the adequate treatment facilities in order to treat recovered food waste is one of the significant elements of the business case. The cost of the recycling program at the City of Melbourne is $300,000 annually (theguardian, 2016). The collection of food waste consists of three scenarios. At first, the food waste are taken to the existing facility that accepts food waste (Gatzert & Schmit, 2016). Secondly, a new facility is developed. It requires purchase of the site or use of old landfill. Thirdly, there is an establishment of infrastructure such as access track.
According to the report of Foodsouthaustralia.com.au (2015), the capital cost of the composting is ranging from $150,000 as well as $1,000,000.  In the year 2013, it is predictable that the cost of food waste in Australia from the households is more than $8 billion each year. The environmental cost is significant as well as includes of emissions of greenhouse gas. Jurgilevich et al., (2016) reported that Australian Government uses trash model that forces people to examine the waste, recycle as well as compost all they can percent high cost of putting out the trash. The idea behind this model is use to sort recycling itself by people of Australia that helps to decrease landfill contribution by a half. The cities can also save money by not having the garbage to the tip.
Literature Summary relates to project topic
One third of the food produced for human expenditure is wasted. The consumption of food within Australia is approximately 670 million tons per year.  Most of the food wastage occurs in Australia at the consumer as well as retail levels, while household wastes an estimation of $616 worth of food annually (abc.net.au, 2016). The wastage of food also wastes energy, money, resources as well as water used to store, transport and process the food. Ghosh et al., (2015) discussed that in most of the Western countries including Australia, the wastage of food is one of the largest components of the household refuse. In Australia, many types of council are implementing food waste recycling service.

Figure 6: Consumer Approach to reduce food waste: Education
(Source: Ghosh et al.,2015, pp-94)
The following are some of the strategic policies used in Australia Federal Government to reduce the food wastes such as:
Role of Sustainable Packaging in reduction of food waste
Sustainable packaging is an emerging as a tool in order to lessen food waste in Australia. Verghese et al., (2013) argued that packaging protects the food by preventing damage, providing barriers against the oxygen, optimizing the humidity as well as temperature and keeping the food within protective atmosphere. There is an opportunity for packaging to address the triple bottom line of sustainability by addressing the food wastage (Hajkowicz et al., 2013). Addressing the wastage of food conserves the resources that reduces environmental impacts, reduces the supply chain as well as cost of consumer. By viewing the production of food as well as creating a value chain, packaging is recovered as well as recycled. Vlotman and Ballard (2014) stated that Australia succeeds in creating sustainable packaging as well as sustainable food systems.

Figure 7: Food Waste Recycling Process
(Source: Vlotman & Ballard, 2012, pp- 237)
Zero Waste
In the South Australia, a governmental agency Zero Waste was set up to cater the need to increase waste avoidance as well as recycling.  Lin et al., (2013) opined that from the environmental perspective, the wastage of food in landfill creates methane gas that is a potent greenhouse gas. Mitigation of the greenhouse gases helps to reduce climate change. Pfaltzgraff  et al., (2013) argued that from the economic perspective, there are efficiency gains that are made by taking a hard look at the supply chain. Zero waste is used to reduce the food waste in Australia. It is one of the waste management as well as planning approaches that emphasize on waste prevention (Zaman, 2014). The zero waste encompasses to eliminate the wastages through both recycling as well as reuse. It focuses on restructuring of production as well as system of distribution in order to reduce waste.

Figure 8: Zero Waste Hierarchy
(Source: Zaman, 2014, pp-408)
As the main focus of the zero waste is to eliminate the waste from the outset, therefore it needs the involvement from other industries as well as government. Zaman and Lehmann (2013) stated that the federal government also forms policies for better manufacturing of product as well as adoption of waste management strategies to eliminate the waste. Therefore, due to involvement of the governmental and other businesses, Australia can able to reduce as well as eliminate the waste is one of the vital works of the strategies of zero waste within any organization or business case (Lehmann & Crocker, 2013). Woolworths announced that they commit to reduce the food waste that is drive to landfill by the year 2020. Therefore, the company begins a partnership with local food rescue organization, OzHarves (Woolworthslimited.com.au, 2015). The main focus of the partnership is to collect as well as distribute of edible food to people those are need across Australia. Woolworths engage their farmers, manufacturers, customers, produces and employees to assist them in reducing food waste (theguardian, 2015). It also supports the educational campaigns of OzHarvest on the reduction of food such as Think, Eat, save, it is an imitative united with United Nations Environment Programme. 
A standout amongst the most concerns of the strong food waste is the era of the discharges of greenhouse gases for example, methane and additionally carbon dioxide. Australia likewise confronts many boundaries, such as complexity in the production of food, lack of established infrastructure in addition innovation for option treatment over sustenance waste and absence of customer mindfulness. The Government of Australia spotlights on advancing key awareness on the results of sustenance wastage and offers measures to diminish greenhouse gas emissions. There are some of the key steps to manage the food wastage, for example, support for the farming productivity, effective use of packaging family unit instruction and interest in option treatment innovation. Two of the recycling processes are used by the Australian Government to reduce the harmful effects of food waste such as in-vessel composting and anaerobic digestion. With recycling of food wastes, the Australia population can benefit such as economic, environmental, community and health benefits. Some of the factors are used to reduce such as rise in landfill cost, governmental policies to reduce food wastes and growth in the business through distribution of charities. Zero waste management and packaging are used to reduce the food waste in Australia.
It is concluded that Australia faces vital challenges in the coming decades. From the entire project report, it is seen that Australia wastes 7.5 million tonnes per year. The complexity of the issue is that the customers as well as retailers are enhancing their waste accountability as well as maximizes their efforts in order to implement practices that will reduce the wastage of food. The effort to reduce the food waste is considered as environmental imperative such that it offers sustainable alternative in order to maximize the production of food and maintain food security internationally.
Australia prepares to start cost effective food waste program and campaign to aware the population about the problems that the human beings faces due to wastage of food. This type of programs is useful for people living in Australia to become aware of the harmful effects of the food wastage within the regions of Australia. The Australia Federal Government focuses to reduce the food waste by reducing it using the packaging technique as well as zero waste technique. The new markets for recovering the food are determined by a variety of factors are rise of cost in landfill, governmental policies to lessen food waste and growth in the business that improve food for distribution by the charities. The food wastes have not only had economic impacts in terms of the cost of disposal. It also faces environmental impacts. When the food is being inclined into the landfill, then it becomes a major source of the methane.
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Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Kosseva, M., & Webb, C. (Eds.). (2013). Food industry wastes: assessment and recuperation of commodities. Academic Press.
Lane, M., & Dawes, L. (2013). Carrying Capacity Dashboard Analyses—Australian Case Studies of Populations Scaled to Place. In Urban Environment (pp. 27-37). Springer Netherlands.
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