HMS0003 Research For Health And Safety

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HMS0003 Research For Health And Safety

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HMS0003 Research For Health And Safety

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Course Code: HMS0003
University: Norwegian University Of Science And Technology

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Country: Norway

Examples of Research philosophies- Positivism, interpretivism, pragmatism, realism, objectivism and subjectivism.
Example of Research Strategy- Mixed method ,grounded theory, case study, survey,qualitative and quantitative methods.
Note: Explain each of the philosophies and strategies in relations to the research topic (Evaluate the use of early warning systems to prevent harm in the building industry) and choose any two from each of the philosophy and strategy that would be appropriate for the research topic.

The aim of the early warning system in the building industry is to prevent and minimizes the effects of natural disasters. Building of the structural health monitoring system helps to ensure high level of safety. It is one of the essential duties of the engineers and contactors to have a proper working plan for ensuring maximum safety for the workers. It is important to make use of the best possible strategy for ensuring maximum safety of the building industry. The purpose of getting early warning system is to get detailed information about the upcoming crisis situation. With the help of proper timely action, it is possible for the hazard to turn into a disaster.
The current research aims to evaluate the need for early warning system that is implemented within the building industry and to make the best choice of warning system. The research will be conducted by analyzing the existing literature. Appropriate research philosophy will be chosen from Positivism, interpretivism, realism, objectivism, and subjectivism.Proper research strategy will also be chosen based on the research aim and objectives. Proper justification will also be provided for each of the chosen strategies.
Literature Review
According to Cheng et al. (2014), the early warning system within a building consists of chain of information system that aims to provide immediate caution signal to the residents that will help to prevent the occurring of accidents. As number of complex engineering structure is being used in the planning of buildings, it is essential to make use of the advanced levels of security systems that will help to minimize the risk and hazardous events that may include injuries or even death. Basher (2006), has added that there is also the risk of economic and financial loss as a building faces damage due to naturals like Earthquakes and flood or human-made disasters like fire outbreak.
Proper risk analysis is one of the major activities that are associated with that of the early warning systems. As per Kafle (2017), proper disaster risk analysis is considered to be one of the essential steps within the sustainable development and sustainable livelihoods. Places with higher risks and the levels of threats from each risk can easily be detected with the help of the assessment plan. For example, in places where, there is greater chance of earthquakes; the system of ground motion amplification can be used. According to Kubo et al. (2011), this is system is crucial for high rise buildings, which is mainly used in areas of Japan. The aim of this system is to amplify the preliminary shocks that occur during the initial stage an earthquake.
Liu et al .(2013), have mentioned that proper structural health monitoring technology has been used to save time and resources that are needed for installing the proper devices. Hence, it is possible to properly make use of the possible solutions. Building information system is also essential in order to provide valuable data related to the early warning system. Specific intelligent data box can be used in order to process the information of risk analysis. This information is later applied in the matter of implementing plan for early warning system. According to the rules threshold, it is important to determine the level of safety that is being installed. Integrated information system is therefore believe to be Highly Effective in the context of storing information that can be used for future purpose for improving the quality of early warning system.
Safety and risk are considered to be mutually contradictory to each other and they are used in all major construction projects. The safety issue cannot be indulged within a risk factor element. It is essential to distinguish between different types of risks that are associated with the same. The emergency response plan will be implemented depending upon the level of risks. Under macro scale, the safety element is related to the quality of the construction project. It also helps to evaluate the cost effectiveness and the durability of a building project. This factors within construction project are considered to be highly dependent upon each other. The current knowledge of safety and monitoring process will be used in implementing corresponding early warning system within the construction project. It is important to consider the dynamic behaviour of the risks indicator for risks analysis. Compulsory index within the construction project also includes the early warning system that will include safety protocols and providing safety training to the construction workers. Safety education is believed to be one of the essential parts of all Construction project which requires high level of attention. It is important to get proper license for the construction project to ensure high level of safety. This will include taking precautions while setting up electricity line that can help to prevent the accident from short circuits. The legal officials need to strictly monitor each and every action of the construction project, which will ensure high level of safety. It is also essential to implement plan depending upon local geographical condition. For example, in the coastal areas where there are frequent chances of storms, most of the construction work needs to have the capability to with Stand High speed wind (Cunnif and Schwartz 2015).
It is also important to have high level of accuracy in implementing early warning system, which will help to minimise the chances of hazardous event. For example, fire alarm that is installed within buildings in order to detect smoke need to be highly sensitive, which will able to detect small amount of smoke from any corner of the building thereby reducing the risk associated with all major fire outbreak conditions.
Research Philosophies and Strategies
Research philosophy is an essential part of all investigation work, which helps to deal with the nature of knowledge and its source. It is also believed that with the help of proper research philosophy investigators of a project can properly represent all the collected data. The primary and secondary data are being collected from respected source and analysed accordingly depending upon the type of chosen philosophy. In order to select proper research philosophy it is essential for the investigator to be aware of the hypothesis and preconceived knowledge about the respective domain (Padilla-Díaz 2015). It is highly essential for the researcher to select the proper kind of philosophy as the same will be reflected in the result section of the research.
The positivism research philosophy considered the fact that most of the knowledge that is used in the investigation work is based upon natural phenomena. It is also important to establish relationship between the dependent and independent variable of the research. The information thus collected will be used in verifying the perspective of the subject. The intuitive knowledge is an essential part of positivism research philosophy. Investigator will also be able to reflect upon their experience that they have gathered while collecting essential information for the particular research. Proper scientific knowledge is highly required in order to conduct the process of observation that helps to conclude the research work.  
The interpretivism research philosophy, helps to interpret the experience and knowledge that are being collected as a part of Investigation work. It is important for the researcher to act as social investigator that will help them to understand the difference in people’s perspective about the chosen topic of the research. They generally use multiple methods in order to reflect upon experience of individual people on a single issue. Natural process of Data Collection including interview and high level of observations are used. The secondary data is considered to be one of the essential parts of interpretivism philosophy. The phenomenology is considered to be one of the essential parts of interpretivism philosophy, which is essential to directly indulge in the collected experience. There is also the type of symbolic interactionism that helps to interpret the real information obtained from respective sources (Corbin et al. 2014).
There is also the element of pragmatism research philosophy, which only consider all type of element action that is supported by proper evidence. The Research question and objective are considered to be the most important element in case of pragmatism philosophy. In this case of both positivism and interpretivism research ideas are taken, which help in the formulation of a perfect Research question. Hence it is possible to combine different kinds of research approaches and strategies in order to get the best possible result and draw proper and sufficient conclusion (Collins 2017).
The realism research philosophy is highly dependent upon the idea of Independence that is considered to be a part of reality in the human mind. There can be direct and Critical nature of realism that is highly essential. High nature of critical data is utilized in order to understand the perspective of the research. This research philosophy uses the human experience about the subject matter of study and therefore is considered one of the essential element in case of formulating the research strategy.  
The main purpose of objectivism research philosophy is to establish critical relationship between different objects and elements that are essential part of the research. It is also possible to accurately measure the change that occurs within the element of the research. This is considered to be one of the message major social element, which can help in the construction of proper data analysis method.
Subjectivism research philosophy on the other hand is also dependent upon critical level of observation that is being used in case of the scientific research. This method is mainly used during quantitative methodology, where the subject of the research involved collecting accurate scientific data. This can also help to guide all possible actions that are related to choosing the specific Research question (DePoy and Gitlin 2015).
Research strategy is also one of the essential parts of Investigation method that help in formulating the proper guideline. There are different types of approach that are used as a part of research strategy and it focuses collecting accurate level of data. Mixed method of research strategy is considered to be one of the popularly used in most of the investigation work as it helps to collect data from variety of ranges. Both primary and secondary form of data is used in this method in order to analyse both quantitative and qualitative aspect of research. The mixed method is also considered to be one of the multiple ways to approach the research problem statement. One of the major advantages of mixed research approach is that the investigator gets the opportunity to analyze the research problem in multiple elements. Accurate method of sampling and data analysis are also used in order to use authentic information and increase the relevance in the conclusion. Holistic approach can also be used in order to ensure that proper guidelines are being followed and regularly changed in order to deal with new form of Investigation challenges.
The grounded theory of research approach is considered to be and inductive part of research methodology. Systemic regulation is used in order to set up a rigorous approach leading to rising of new concept related to the investigation work. Hence, it is possible for the researcher to develop new concepts and ideas that can be used to draw proper conclusion (Meyers and van Woerkom 2014)
The researchers can also use proper case study relevant to the area of Investigation in order to collect essential data. It can also help to evaluate the research problem from the case study and hence accordingly to deal with all future circumstances. As it is possible to practically highlight up on the research issue, the researchers will get the opportunity to conduct deep Investigation and also highlight up on the cause of the research problem. They can also relate all types of research problem that can help to prevent occurrence of same event in the future.
The survey is another important part of the research methods and strategy that are used for the purpose of collecting primary information directly from the sample size. Questionnaires are constructed in order to collect the proper data in the forms of human interaction. The process of questionnaire construction is essential to improve the levels of accuracy while collecting response. This strategy helps to conduct a detailed study of a particular geographical area and thereby assist in the process of understanding the view points of people about the research domain.
The quantitative research is used as systemic approaches that are used to investigate statically analyze the collected data in the forms of using the mathematical and statistical tools. In cases of the qualitative research, the information is collected from the academic sources that are needed to analyze to understand the background of the market research. There is coding software that is used in the process to analyze the data. 
For the given research work related to evaluating the best possible warning strategy to prevent harm in building system it is essential for the researcher to select proper research philosophy and strategy. Pragmatism research philosophy is considered to be appropriate for the given case and it uses the element of both positivism and interpretivism. It will be possible for the researchers to totally focus upon all type of practical situations that can lead to emergency in case of the building. It will also be possible to generate proper Research question and objective depending upon the situation that can lead to crisis in building management. The investigator can also collect real life experience from crisis situation that led to destruction of building in construction work. The element of intuitive knowledge can also be used which help in formulating all type of future crisis situation that can arise due to change in construction work project. As the positivism research philosophy focus is up on scientific observation, it is easily possible for them to deal with the research strategy. In most of the cases, the investigator will also be able to collect accurate information in order to make scientific prediction for all type of future emergency situation in building construction management.
The investigator can also use objectivism research philosophy in order to establish critical relationship between different variables and elements that are essential part of building construction work. It will also be possible to accurately measure all type of parameters that can lead to crisis within the building and therefore help in implementing proper warning system from beforehand. The social elements related to the warning system which include the behaviour of the people and their awareness level can also be analyzed. It will, therefore, be possible to formulate ways that can increase the level of awareness among individual. Hence, the conclusion of the research work will help to deliver essential message to the public that can help them to formulate innovative technique to improve upon the existing early warning system within the building industry.
For the given research work it is essential for the investigator to collect essential primary and secondary data. In the given context, it is possible to make use of the mixed research approach, where the researcher will get the opportunity to collect essential data from wider sources. Accuracy can also be maintained in sampling technique where the data will be collected from practical ground reports of construction projects. This will allow to identify all form of loopholes that are currently installed within the early warning system in a building. It will also be possible to use the Holistic approach that is needed to ensure proper implementation of guidelines in all construction work. The monitoring of the early warning system can also be done in order to deal with the essential issues.
The researchers can also use case study from all past incidents of building disasters. They can take help from past document, which has able to accurately deal with all types of situation. It will therefore be possible to highlight upon all circumstances that led to building disaster including short circuit and fire outbreak.
In the concluding note, it can be said that early warning system is considered to be highly essential in the management of building construction industry. This can help in formulating ways that can highlight upon the best possible techniques with respect to the given situation of building management crisis.  
From the existing literature, it is clear that proper risk analysis is highly essential in the context of the given situation that can help to identify all form of threats that are associated with building construction projects. It is also essential to conduct proper assessment of all natural disaster including earthquake and flood that can cause severe damage to the building. The proper monitoring system is also crucial in the contacts that it can help to improve the level of accuracy in the early warning system. Intelligent data box can be installed to collect essential information related to the early warning system and therefore help to improve the process.
From the discussion section it is clear that it will be effective for the researchers to make use of all essential data related to the early warning system in building construction industry. Pragmatism research philosophy will be used in the given context as it will help to formulate proper Research question and objective for fulfilling the need of crisis management. This can also help to collect essential information from both primary and secondary sources that are needed to analyze the condition related to the natural or manmade disaster that can occur in a building. That is also the element of mixed research approach that can help in collecting primary and secondary data from authentic sources. This can help to improve the reliability within the findings of the given data. Researchers and also analyse past case study related to accident in building that occurred due to failure of early warning system. This can help them to provide proper recommendation for the research work by identifying the loopholes in all given circumstances.
Basher, R., 2006. Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 364(1845), pp.2167-2182.
Cheng, M.H., Wu, S., Heaton, T.H. and Beck, J.L., 2014. Earthquake early warning application to buildings. Engineering Structures, 60, pp.155-164.
Collins, H., 2017. Creative research: the theory and practice of research for the creative industries. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Corbin, J., Strauss, A. and Strauss, A.L., 2014. Basics of qualitative research. Sage.
Cunniff, S. and Schwartz, A., 2015. Performance of natural infrastructure and nature-based measures as coastal risk reduction features. Environmental Defense Fund, 35.
DePoy, E. and Gitlin, L.N., 2015. Introduction to Research-E-Book: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Kafle, S.K., 2017. Disaster Early Warning Systems in Nepal: Institutional and Operational Frameworks. J Geogr Nat Disast, 7(196), pp.2167-0587.
Kubo, T., Hisada, Y., Murakami, M., Kosuge, F. and Hamano, K., 2011. Application of an earthquake early warning system and a real-time strong motion monitoring system in emergency response in a high-rise building. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(2), pp.231-239.
Liu, Y., Yi, T.H. and Xu, Z.J., 2013. Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets. The Scientific World Journal, 2013.
Meyers, M.C. and van Woerkom, M., 2014. The influence of underlying philosophies on talent management: Theory, implications for practice, and research agenda. Journal of World Business, 49(2), pp.192-203.
Padilla-Díaz, M., 2015. Phenomenology in educational qualitative research: Philosophy as science or philosophical science. International Journal of Educational Excellence, 1(2), pp.101-110.

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