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HS3101 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health And Wellbeing

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HS3101 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health And Wellbeing

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Course Code: HS3101
University: James Cook University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Question
Media content ran strongly influence an audience’s thought& beliefs and attitudes. Several studies have Ind caned that negative media portrayals regarding culturally diverse and disadvantaged groups perpetuate negative stereotyping and racism In Australia (Coffin, 1007; Stoneham, Goodman, & Salle, 2014; sweet, 10091 Such prejudice wn be considered an ‘upstream’ determinant of health, and consequently, impacts on the health and wellbeing of the person who is experiencing discrimination. To counteract such deleterious effects, it is imperative that health professionals are aware of such impact and not allow these to influence their care for the person. Moreover, they should act as an advocate in debunking such media items.
 
In your analysis you will need to include:
 
1. A critical analysis of the article; including discussion regarding how each media item contributes to the discussion/debate about the selected health issue;

Are biases/stereotypes present? How does this item contribute to knowledge regarding the health issue
Justify your stance via linking the discussed social and cultural determinants of health, social Justice and population health. Utilise contemporaneous resources such as key government and non-government organisation reports; health promotion programs and initiatives; and peer reviewed journal articles to support your analysis. 

2. A prediction of the impact of each item. How does each media itern potentially influence the health outcomes and access for the person living with your selected health &suer When researching and writing this essay, utilise these consideration points.

Where possible, use a different type and source for each media item. If you are concerned about rye suitability of the media irym, please coMact the subject coordinator.
The media items must be regarding Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing issues. Media items regarding other First Nations populations are unsuitable. 
It is recommended you discuss each media Min separately. For ease of reference, headings are acceptable in this essay.

Answer
Media’s Influence on the Health and Wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People
Introduction
Improving the health and wellbeing most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Australia has been a daunting and longstanding challenge for the federal, state and territorial governments [Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007]. The health and wellbeing status of indigenous Australians exhibit unacceptably wide gap compared to their non-indigenous Australians counterparts making this situation labeled as a human rights concern by the United Nations and the Australian government acknowledging the same. The plight of indigenous Australians can be traced from the colonial period and other historical events that assisted to subject indigenous Australians into socioeconomic challenges that by extension hinder their easy access to quality and affordable healthcare (Paradies, Harris & Anderson, 2008). The cultural orientation of indigenous people has also been labeled as a platform upon which these people are discriminated against by their fellow non-indigenous Australian.
To add to these contemporary factors that adversely impact the access to healthcare by indigenous people is the influence of media. For a long time, negative media content has in one way or another contributed to influencing the public towards forming negative stereotype ideologies, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the culture diverse of indigenous Australians and other disadvantaged groups (Stoneham, Goodman, & Daube, 2014). These negative media content and its implications on Australian’s mindset regarding indigenous Australians by extension hinder these indigenous Australia to freely access quality, safe and affordable healthcare. This paper will endeavor to critically analyze two recent media items that touch on contemporary indigenous people’s health and wellbeing concerns and possibly which influenced the public towards forming negative stereotype ideology towards them thereby curtailing their easy access to quality, safe, and affordable healthcare.
Older Indigenous Australians with illness or disability at high risk of depression, study finds. 
This media report posted by Bridget Brennan and Naomi Selvaratnam who are National Indigenous Affairs’ correspondents paints the dire picture of the wanting healthcare status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. The report draws from insights contained in a recent research report conducted by Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute whose findings indicate that older indigenous Australians with various illnesses such as renal failure and diabetes as well as disabilities posit a higher risk of contracting psychiatric disorders such as depression. The report is categorical that half of all older Aboriginal Australians with critical health conditions are likely to suffer psychological distress at some point in their life and that this is especially the risks of Aboriginal people. An official of the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Dr. Eades contended during the release of the report:
“Before these study people were aware of the impact of social disadvantage and poverty on poorer mental health in older Aboriginal people, but we didn’t really appreciate the important role that living with chronic illness and physical disability has in driving these mental health problems,”
This report challenges the Australian initiative on closing the gap between the life expectancy of indigenous Australians and their non-indigenous counterparts. The closing the Gap initiative is meant to advance all Australian equal opportunities of accessing quality, safe and affordable health care regardless of the socioeconomic status of all Australian [Australian Government; Closing the Gap, 2013].  However, this withstanding, indigenous Australians have continued to experience adverse health outcomes from their own healthcare system. This has for a long time been orchestrated by there being massive inequalities of social determinants of health between individuals and various sections of the society (Garvey, 2008). Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People contend with poor health care as a result of poverty; poor neighborhoods; lack of employment; lack of proper housing and safe drinking water; and lack of access to critical socioeconomic resources [Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007]. Moreover, indigenous people have for a long time been discriminated, intimidated, and segregated on racial grounds and have been categorized as disadvantaged groups partly due to their traditions and culture further jeopardizing the quest for quality healthcare (Calma, Dudgeon, & Bray, 2017).
It can be vividly deduced from this media report that in addition to the usual inequalities in social determinants of health, indigenous Older Australians with chronic illnesses and physical disability are further bound to experience mental illness at some point in their lifetime more than their non-indigenous Australians. Moreover, the Baker Heart and Diabetes report further perpetuate the untenable stereotype ideology that even though all Australians with physical limitations are bound to experience distress, this risk is indeed a norm and especially the case for Aboriginal people. Moreover, the report asserts in a statement that “We would say it would be exceptional for an Aboriginal person with the disability not to have experienced anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder”. Such stereotyping proposition when brought to the public limelight through a media report like this adversely contribute to negative influence in the public thought about the dignity and humane aspects of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People.
To this end, Australian Human Rights Commission (2007) calls upon the Australian federal and state governments to speed up efforts to close the gap between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in all aspects of life and especially in eliminating negative socioeconomic and cultural determinants of health. Australian is quite populated with people of numerous backgrounds and cultural orientations and this ought to be taken as strength and not a weakness to be used to stereotype against some members of the community. It is only under such a platform that social justice be realized for a harmonious society. Access to adequate and quality health care is central to this end (Graham, et al., 2013).
By and large, this media item brings to the limelight of the public and the government on the importance restructuring efforts of improving the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and especially for older persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities since they are prone to depression. In addition to bridging the social determinants of health gaps that have persistently existed between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians, there is need to need to customize healthcare services in ways that protect and respect the sociocultural elements of indigenous people [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017]. In doing so, the report indicates that further funding is required to meet the targets of closing the gaps in life expectancies of Australians.
Syphilis Outbreak Spreads Throughout Australia.
This report by Michaela Fleming for Contagion Live; Infectious Diseases Today immediately stereotypically starts off by claiming that Australia is one of the countries in the world that is hardest hit by syphilis, this is more so amongst indigenous populations than in others. Upon the declaration of the first syphilis outbreak in four Australian jurisdictions- South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, and Northern Territory, the worst hit people were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who primarily live in the remote areas of northern Australia. Even though this is the case, outwardly pinpointing that syphilis has hit the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people the worst is rather unethical and lack of respect for the dignities of these groups. To would have been more tenable for Michaela Fleming to just report that the government had declared a syphilis outbreak in the country without singling out which communities were hardest hit. Such a statement is outwardly not only discriminatory but also intimidating.
Regardless of the socioeconomic situations of different individuals, communities or sections of the society, according to the virtue of respect and dignity to those particular people is very important for a harmonious society. Singling out Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as the hardest hit by syphilis and going ahead to pouring the same in the public limelight means giving non-indigenous people a confirmation reason why disadvantaged groups ought to be discriminated upon just like history has put it. Moreover, such negative public portrayal elevates the levels of stereotyping and become a formidable ground for reinforcing inequalities in the access of positive social determinants of health. A statement in the report indicates “The epidemiological profile of the outbreak also indicates that due to the mobility of the indigenous people, there is a high risk for further spread of syphilis”. 
This statement clearly indicates that the movements of indigenous people are likely to further escalate the spread of syphilis in the Northern Region. Even though true in fact, from an ethical viewpoint it is beyond the confines of human dignity to label and report that certain people are bound to spread particular diseases. Actually, in the medical profession, it is unethical to disclose the health and disease status of patients to third parties. In the same spirit, it is unethical to do the same especially against communities that have perennially being discriminated upon even though the matter is of a national, state, and community health capacity.
From a cultural viewpoint, such reporting help elevates negative cultural determinants of health to take center stage to deny Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people easy access to quality safe and affordable healthcare (Awofeso, 2011). This is because such reporting helps the public from negative ideologies that certain diseases are associated with certain people possibly which is by extension associated with their cultural orientation. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people do not only attach significance to healthcare through the adequate provision of medicine, doctors, hospitals, and absence of disease but also their health status is strongly linked to physical environment, community self-esteem, dignity and justice (Herring, Spangaro, Lauw, & McNamara, 2013; Durey, 2010). To this end, this report contravened the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People’s community ethics, dignity and self-esteem since the public will continue having unwarranted stereotypes about these people.
From a human rights viewpoint, the Australian Human Rights Commission (2007) points out that according to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) all people globally are entitled to the right of full enjoyment of highest attainable standards of mental and physical health. This two are critical for the advancement of adequate health and social wellbeing. From a broader viewpoint, communities are supposed to enjoy these rights from collective dimensions and therefore according to the dignity and resources they can be in a position achieve this goal even more easily and cheaply. In the case of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, advancing them opportunities that are geared at improving their health and wellbeing ought to be done in ways that respect their cultures, community dignity and esteem (Liaw, et al., 2011); [Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2017]. It follows that whenever the media is reporting their health and wellbeing concerns, they ought to do so in ways that showcase respect for their cultures and traditions.
Nonetheless, this media article has been instrumental in bringing into the limelight a public health concern in Australia. From a positive light, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People can use it to be more cautious of the disease by taking corrective measures to prevent themselves from contracting it. Moreover, the Australian government’ closing the gap initiative can draw insight from it to strengthen its goal of merging the social determinants of health gaps that exist between indigenous and non-indigenous people. Indeed, a Multi-jurisdictional Syphilis Outbreak Group including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sexual health experts was formed to contain the outbreak.
Conclusion
Overly, through the critical analysis of the two media items, it can be deduced that the media can adversely contribute to negative public thoughts, attitudes, beliefs and stereotyping of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. This stereotyping gesture in important at elevating the gap in social determinants of health that currently exist in Australia between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. If unchecked, media report’ contribution to stereotyping can be one of the stumbling blocks towards achieving the goal of closing the gap in life expectancies amongst different Australian communities. Addressing colonial, historical injustices and merging the gap in the access of healthcare by eliminating negative social determinants of health as well as shunning stereotyping media reports can go a long way in achieving this goal (Dudgeon, et al., 2010).
References
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2017). Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
health status, 2016. Retrieved from https://healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/healthinfonet/getContent.php?linkid=590827&title=Summary+of+Aboriginal+and+Torres+Strait+Islander+health+status+2016
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2017). Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2017 report. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/23380178-50e2-4922-b332-eb23f84c1f30/aihw-ihw-183-vic.pdf.aspx?inline=true
Australian Government; Closing the Gap (2013). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Health Plan 2013–2023. Retrieved from
https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/B92E980680486C3BCA257BF0001BAF01/$File/health-plan.pdf
Australian Human Rights Commission (2007). Social determinants and the health of Indigenous
peoples in Australia – a human rights-based approach. Retrieved from
https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/social-determinants-and-health-indigenous-peoples-australia-human-rights-based
Awofeso, N. (2011). Racism: a major impediment to optimal Indigenous health and health care
in Australia. Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 11(3), 1-8.
Brennan, B., & Selvaratnam, N. (2018, Jan 31). Older Indigenous Australians with
illness or disability at high risk of depression, study finds. ABCNEWS. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-02-01/older-indigenous-australians-with-illness-risk-of-depression/9379344
Calma, T., Dudgeon, P., & Bray, A. (2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social and
emotional wellbeing and mental health. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 255-260.
Dudgeon, P., Wright, M., Paradies, Y., Garvey, D., & Walker, I. (2010). The social, cultural and
historical context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice, 25-42.
Durey, A. (2010). Reducing racism in Aboriginal health care in Australia: where does cultural
education fit?. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34, S87-S92.
Garvey, D. (2008). Review of the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous Australian
peoples. Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 8(4).
Graham, G., Pat, D., Clinton, S., A, H., & Kerrie, K., (2013). Working Together; Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice. Retrieved from
https://www.telethonkids.org.au/globalassets/media/documents/aboriginal-health/working-together-second-edition/wt-part-1-chapt-4-final.pdf
Herring, S., Spangaro, J., Lauw, M., & McNamara, L. (2013). The intersection of trauma,
racism, and cultural competence in effective work with aboriginal people: Waiting for trust. Australian Social Work, 66(1), 104-117.
Liaw, S. T., Lau, P., Pyett, P., Furler, J., Burchill, M., Rowley, K., & Kelaher, M. (2011).
Successful chronic disease care for Aboriginal Australians requires cultural competence. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 35(3), 238-248.
Fleming, M. (2018, Aug 3). Syphilis Outbreak Spreads Throughout Australia. Contagion Live;
Infectious Diseases Today. Retrieved from https://www.contagionlive.com/news/syphilis-outbreak-spreads-throughout-australia
Paradies, Y., Harris, R., & Anderson, I. (2008). The impact of racism on Indigenous health in
Australia and Aotearoa: Towards a research agenda. Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Stoneham, M., Goodman, J., & Daube, M. (2014). The portrayal of Indigenous health in selected
Australian media. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 5(1), 1-13.

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