HSH702 Contemporary Health Issues And Policies

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HSH702 Contemporary Health Issues And Policies

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Course Code: HSH702
University: Deakin University

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Country: Australia

Discuss About In Which Two Important Areas Should Be Included In the Policy?

With the advancement of the decades, the treatment of mentally ill patients has changed. The institutionalization concept has been replaced by deinstitutionalization technique where besides, attending the physical causes of developing mental health, the emotional and social factors are also considered by healthcare professionals (Yesufu et al. 2015). Nowadays with the growing population of the old aged cohort due to advancement of medical discoveries and new technologies, the diseases burden of such people are also increasing. Therefore huge amount of healthcare professionals are thereby recruited to meet the increasing demands. Often along with physical health issues, mental and neurodegenerative ailments like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders are always associated (Fleming et al. 2014). Patients with such diseases burden often tend to suffer from depression that affects their quality lives. However the healthcare professionals while treating the disorders often tend to overlook the depression symptoms as they tend to overlap with other diseases. Hence, the report will mainly cover the advocacy for inclusion of treatments that will also address proper treatments for depression besides others.
Health organization:
The Ipswich Mental Hospital is a renowned hospital which is serving the nation of Australia since the year 1940 and had been enlisted as the Queensland Register on 2nd December. They had been the trendsetter in the building up of a moral treatment center which was very different from the institutionalized types of asylum and healthcare sectors that practices inhuman practices to control their parents. They have developed principle like treatment of males and female patients in different areas of their buildings or wards. They have prepared a very beautiful surrounding to their hospital with sunken fences, proper water supply as well as ventilation, gardens and mature trees with provision of employments as well as recreation areas. They have correctly taken these initiatives as modern science believes that a healthy environmental surrounding is extremely important for a better recovery of mental health patients. Their main ideology was very different from the surrounding asylums that were present during the 19th and 20th century as their contemporaries. This is said so because throughout the 19th and 20th century, healthcare system considered very little about the needs of the intellectually disabled people and often considered them to belonging to the class of people called insane (Clement et al. 2015). This mental healthcare hospital had developed values and beliefs where they have stressed upon the growing importance of the spread of awareness for the special needs of the intellectually disabled people in Queensland and had contributed in the construction of different facilities that adopted modern technologies and beliefs regarding healthcare treatment. They had set up many community based services other than their own services inside the healthcare as they believed a community based approach is best for treatments therefore they had always helped in developing new ideas for developing their own approaches and also for their mental health patients (Butcher, Hooley and Mineka, 2015).
Recently, it has been stated by World Health Organization (WHO) that globally the population is aging at a much faster rate and has even stated that within 2015 to 2050, the proportion of old patients over the age of 60 years will become double from about 12% to that of 22 % (WHO 2016). At the same time they have also stated that more than 15% of the adults aged 60 or over suffer from mental disorders and about 10% are suffering from Neuropsychiatric disorders. Hence, it has become extremely important for the mental health care centers and different community settings to provide importance for the mental health as well as the different well being of such individuals. Most of them are seen to suffer from different disorders mainly dementia, schizophrenia and similar others (Baer 2015). However one common symptom that remains associated with each and every of such old mental health patient is depression. Such depression often makes the condition of the patients more adverse and often adds up to the diseases burden that they are already facing (Glover et al. 2014). Besides anxiety disorders are also observed among such individuals that result in destroying the quality lives. It has been found in most of the cases that even due to several awareness programs initiated by the government, mental health issues are under-identified by healthcare practitioners and even the older patient themselves (Anderson and Titov 2014). Moreover, stigma surrounding the mental health illness prevents a large number of people to seek help. Therefore as a result of such stigma, the condition of the patients often worsen and reaches a condition where they can no longer experience a good quality life (Wagner, Horn and Maercker 2014). Therefore it has become extremely urgent to address the aged mental health patients suffering from depression along with other mental and physical diseases burden and take interventions that will make them live a btetter life.
The main issue identified here is that often family members sent their old ailing mental health patient to such mental healthcare centers and also the community settings for their treatment. Although they are treated with much affection and care, the lack of family support has become one of the main concerns that results in the development of disorder as well as anxiety among such patients. The feeling of being left out by family where the old patient used to be the elder often feels a sense of weakness that affects him significantly (Mohr et al. 2013). Moreover, with the growing age, mental cognitive powers begin to decline and therefore rational thinking capability of such patients are also found to be a contributing factor that results in the development of disorders. Often many families tend to leave their patients with the healthcare sectors and never turn out to met the patients which makes them feel left out or lonely or being a burden on family. Therefore, many healthcare sectors even after trying their best to provide the most evidence based interventions for their patients, they often tend to fail to provide a quality life for the patients (Rogers and Pilgrim 2014). This is mainly because of depression engulfs them in a way which makes their treatment very difficult. In fact, WHO has also stated that multiple social, psychological and also biological factors that determine the level of mental health patients but although the biological as well as psychological problems get addressed in the patients often social control can hardly be controlled by the nurses and other healthcare practitioners. WHO has also stated that often mental health burden of the patients get further deteriorated due to the development of depression that occurs due to the abuse of the family members (Coventry et al. 2015). WHO gave stated that when older patients become mentally ill, they are often abused by their family members that often include physical, psychological, sexual, emotional, material as well as financial abuse. They also tend to develop depression due to the result of different harsh activities by their family members. These include abandonment and neglect by the family which results in severe los of dignity and respect of the mental ill patient (Jacksons et al. 2014). Elder patients are often physically abused that not only result in physical harm to the patient but also results in serious long lasting psychological consequences resulting in depression and also anxiety. Often many family members often perform verbal abuse as well as mental abuse as the mental health older patients become physically dependent on others family members die to their inability to perform different diseases like dementia and other neuro-disruptive disorders. Many researchers have also suggested that depression in patients with mental and neuro-disruptive power often gets coincided with that of the symptoms of other diseases present in the patient and therefore is often undertreated and under-diagnosed (van Zoohen et al. 2014). The healthcare practitioners often tend to overlook the depression and the patients often goes untreated and hence the other interventions do not yield the best results.
Aims and objectives of the policy:
Two important areas should be included in the policy which would include proper education of the nurses about how they can handle different issues arising from depression in old patients’ with other mental and neurodegenerative factors. Moreover the policy should also address about educating the ordinary people especially the family members about how they should treat old mental health patients so that they can experience better quality lives. The policy advises the healthcare professionals to handle the issue of depression with utmost expertise without overlooking the symptoms depression and incorporate important interventions that will properly address the symptoms of depression (Bartlets and Naslund 2013). This could be achieved by the nurses by following evidence based research articles which have correctly addressed the different ways of helping mental ill patients suffering from depression. Moreover the infrastructure of the settings of the hospitals would be such that it would promote different interesting activities of the patients where they can engage themselves and enjoy their lives. Moreover the setting would also try to incorporate family members of the patients and the nurse should take the step in explaining the different ways how they can help their family members in overcoming depression by maintaining easy steps. At the same time it will also influence the government to incorporate a section about how old patients with mental issues should be taken care for by the family members without creating strenuous disruption to the patients, harming their lives and affecting their mental health more adversely. The Australian Government for long had provided policies for mental healthcare by addressing the healthcare policies but not has separately mentioned the importance of depression in the life of older people with mental health patients. Therefore the government can conduct a research in order to estimate the number of mental health aged patients suffering from depression and thereby help both the healthcare experts as well as the family members about how to identify the issue and take steps accordingly (Siu et al. 2016). The government should also introduce crisis intervention help line numbers so that the patients or others may report any abuse against the perpetrators.
Health promotion framework:
The health issue chosen is the issue of depression faced by aged mental health patient that mainly arises due to the effect of diseases burden of different neurodegenerative factors, associated mental health disorders and the ill treatment faced by such patient by their members. It is really not possible by them to tackle the issue themselves; therefore the entire issue has to be handled by the nurses and other healthcare practitioners. The ecological model of healthcare promotion should be applied here in order to address the issues to the healthcare representatives. The first is the intrapersonal and individual factors that will influence the healthcare workers and family members to influence their practice by incorporating correct knowledge, beliefs, personality and attitudes at individual factors. This will help the patients to feel loved and cared for. The second are the interpersonal factors that will include the interactions with other people who will help in providing social support and prevent any sort of barriers that may affect interpersonal growth of the healthcare representatives ultimately promoting proper behaviors and correct interventions towards the patients with the depression (Rabbit, Kazdin and Scasselatti 2015). Often community based programs can be arranged where such hospitals can also participate with their patients making gifting them wonderful days in their lives. They will also be able to communicate with others and feel included. The third factor is the institutional as well as the organizational factors that include the incorporation of rules, regulations, policies and different informal structures which will help in the promotion of different interventions by which severe symptoms of depression can be handled and thereby managed. This organizational head should underrate meetings discussing the issues and recommending policies for such patients and also guidelines for healthcare centers. The fourth is the evaluation of the community factors which include consideration of the formal as well as the social norms that exist among the different individuals, groups and organization in order to mould their ways to enhance the treatment of such patients with care, affection, love and tenderness. This can be achieved by allowing communities, voluntary carers and other organizations to collaborate among themselves and find out effective ways to mitigate the problem (Ehde et al. 2014). The last step would include the introduction of a public policy by government that will address the issue at local, state and also federal level and introduce laws to regulate and support health actions and different interventions for the benefits of the aged mental health patients for proper handling of depression in such patients. This would be in addition to the policy for advocacy.
For properly handling the issues of depression among the aged mental health patient, the organization as well as the government should first create policies that will address the healthcare professionals. It should determine how they can properly identify the correct symptoms of the depression and do not confuse them or overlook them due to the presence of other mental health disorders. They should also pay importance to the treatment of depression as it may often affect the other interventions for treatment of the other disorders in the patients by not making the other interventions fully successful. Depression often affects the quality life of an individual and the nurse should thereby take active interventions addressing the depression symptoms. The nurses should also make sure that they educate the family members about how to treat such patients with care affection so that they do not neglect or provide wrong intervention to the aged patient. The organization should include initiate training classes that will help the healthcare professionals to bridge the gap that is present in their practices (Verma et al. 2017)
The second recommendation would be that the government should introduce policies and laws that will be strict against the various ill treatments which he family members commit over the aged mental health patient that hives rise to depression (Corrigan, Druss and Perlik 2014). The government should introduce different guidelines that the family members should follow to provide the best care for such patients. Any sort of abuse for aged mental health patient should be reported and should be punished severely as it not only results in depression of the helpless mental health patient but also results in severe breach in human rights and freedom. Therefore the government should incorporate strong policies for family members about the proper way of treatment of such patients and include helpline numbers to report when such crisis occurs in a neighborhood (Fusar Poli et al. 2014).
The third recommendation would incorporate proper setting up of an environment which will deal with depressed patients effectively. Researchers have stated that three important factors need to be managed by the healthcare coordinators as well as with the caregivers and the family members (Baumisecther et al. 2014). Management of proper resources should be done that will include health, cognitive function as well as proper provision and respect of the socioeconomic status of the depressed individuals. This respect will help them feel socially included and will overcome the concept of stigma associated with it (Ebert 2017). The second is the management of the difficult life experiences that the patients had in their life leading to mental disorders and the third and most importantly is the proper engagement of such depressed individuals in different types of volunteer work, social activities and others so that they can feel that they are also helping in the contribution to the society. This will help them to overcome their depression and lead a healthy life.
Depression in old patients with mental and neurodegenerative disorder are often overlooked by the healthcare professionals as the symptoms tend to get combined with other health issues. These depression symptoms mainly arise due to ill treatments by family, loss of independency, exclusion from the social environment and many others. Often handling the large number of disease burden becomes difficult for the healthcare professionals who therefore tend to overlook such symptoms. Therefore, it is extremely important for the organization to provide a policy for advocacy to raise the concern among healthcare professionals so that they can successfully address the issue and take necessary steps. At the same time, it will also guide government to include such guidelines in their own policy making citizens aware on a wider scale. Once the depression symptoms in the old aged mental health patients are properly handled by the nurses, it will directly help them in developing a better quality life which will make them live happily.
Andersson, G. and Titov, N., 2014. Advantages and limitations of Internet?based interventions for common mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 13(1), pp.4-11.
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Baer, R.A. ed., 2015. Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. Academic Press.
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Butcher, J.N., Hooley, J.M. and Mineka, S.M., 2015. Abnormal psychology. Pearson Higher Ed.
Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., Morgan, C., Rüsch, N., Brown, J.S.L. and Thornicroft, G., 2015. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological medicine, 45(1), pp.11-27.
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Coventry, P., Lovell, K., Dickens, C., Bower, P., Chew-Graham, C., McElvenny, D., Hann, M., Cherrington, A., Garrett, C., Gibbons, C.J. and Baguley, C., 2015. Integrated primary care for patients with mental and physical multimorbidity: cluster randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for patients with depression comorbid with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. bmj, 350, p.h638.
Ebert, D.D., Berking, M., Cuijpers, P., Lehr, D., Pörtner, M. and Baumeister, H., 2015. Increasing the acceptance of internet-based mental health interventions in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of affective disorders, 176, pp.9-17.
Ehde, D.M., Dillworth, T.M. and Turner, J.A., 2014. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with chronic pain: Efficacy, innovations, and directions for research. American Psychologist, 69(2), p.153.
Fleming, L., Randell, K., Harvey, C.J. and Espie, C.A., 2014. Does cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia reduce clinical levels of fatigue, anxiety and depression in cancer patients?. Psycho?Oncology, 23(6), pp.679-684.
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Glover, A., Bradshaw, L.E., Watson, N., Laithwaite, E., Goldberg, S.E., Whittamore, K.H. and Harwood, R.H., 2014. Diagnoses, problems and healthcare interventions amongst older people with an unscheduled hospital admission who have concurrent mental health problems: a prevalence study. BMC geriatrics, 14(1), p.43.
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Mohr, D.C., Burns, M.N., Schueller, S.M., Clarke, G. and Klinkman, M., 2013. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health. General hospital psychiatry, 35(4), pp.332-338.
Rabbitt, S.M., Kazdin, A.E. and Scassellati, B., 2015. Integrating socially assistive robotics into mental healthcare interventions: Applications and recommendations for expanded use. Clinical psychology review, 35, pp.35-46.
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Siu, A.L., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Grossman, D.C., Baumann, L.C., Davidson, K.W., Ebell, M., García, F.A., Gillman, M., Herzstein, J., Kemper, A.R. and Krist, A.H., 2016. Screening for depression in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 315(4), pp.380-387.
van Zoonen, K., Buntrock, C., Ebert, D.D., Smit, F., Reynolds, C.F., Beekman, A.T. and Cuijpers, P., 2014. Preventing the onset of major depressive disorder: a meta-analytic review of psychological interventions. International journal of epidemiology, 43(2), pp.318-329.
Verma, S.K., Luo, N., Subramaniam, M., Sum, C.F., Stahl, D., Liow, P.H. and Chong, S.A., 2017. Impact of depression on health related quality of life in patients with diabetes.
Wagner, B., Horn, A.B. and Maercker, A., 2014. Internet-based versus face-to-face cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Journal of affective disorders, 152, pp.113-121.
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