HSH725 Research Literacy For Health Practice

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HSH725 Research Literacy For Health Practice

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HSH725 Research Literacy For Health Practice

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Course Code: HSH725
University: Deakin University

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Country: Australia


Research and academic writing skills
In this assignment, you will be doing what so many of us need to do in the workplace: understand a problem, find out what might work best as a solution, and make recommendations based on this evidence. To complete this in the form of an academic assessment task you are required to:

use effective Library search strategies
present your findings in the form of a clearly structured academic report
use the Deakin Harvard referencing style and follow the referencing and academic integrity guidelines on the Deakin referencing site:

The problem you will be researching is domestic violence, which is a common and serious problem within Australia and a leading risk factor contributing to illness, disability and death (Mitchell 2011). Domestic violence is harmful both to the victim (generally women and children) and community, having damaging physical, psychological, emotional and social implications.
Research and assignment writing process

In this essay, you are required to research the academic literature to identify five (5) peer- reviewed journal articles that report evidence on prevention of harm fromdomestic violence. You may approach this from a general perspective, or you may like to restrict your research to a particular at-risk group (e.g. age of women/children, socioeconomic status), and/or type of risk factor (e.g. alcohol abuse, attitudes, child abuse).
It is important that you consider that these articles are the ‘best’ sources of evidence for this issue. Thus, you will need to demonstrate your understanding of the hierarchyof research evidence (discussed in the unit).
You also need to be clear on which of the following fields you are aiming to provide recommendations for (e.g. public health, health promotion, social work or health and human services management).
You will need to describe your search strategy e.g. which databases and search terms you used to obtain your papers (examples of this will be discussed in the unit, often this is presented as a table).
You will then need to provide a brief review of the evidence you have collected relevant to practice in your field (e.g. public health, health promotion, social work or health and human services management).

Domestic violence is not only restricted to the lower and middle socioeconomic households. Also referred to as family violence or domestic abuse, it refers to abuse by an individual against another, which primarily takes place in a domestic setting. Such domestic settings commonly encompass cohabitation and marriage (Root & Brown 2014, p.145). Intimate partner violence is one kind of domestic violence that occurs when violent acts are committed by partners or spouse in their intimate relationship. Furthermore, domestic violence also takes place against parents, children and older adults. It occurs in different forms namely, verbal, physical, economic, religious, emotional, sexual and reproductive (Howard et al. 2013, p.e.1001452). This report will discuss five peer-reviewed articles that elaborate on prevention of harm from this kind of violence.
An organised pattern of search terms were used for retrieving relevant articles from the electronic databases (Aromataris & Riitano 2014, p. 52). The search strategy was based on a combination of different key words such as, ‘domestic’, ‘family’, ‘abuse’, ‘violence’, ‘manage’, ‘prevent’, ‘prevention’, ‘assault’, and ‘harm’. These key terms were combined with the use of Boolean operators such as, AND, OR, and NOT. While AND narrowed down the retrieved articles, use of OR helped in broadening the search results. NOT was used to extract search hits that contained specific key terms and excluded others (McGowan et al. 2016, p.42). Articles published in English, on or after 2013 were selected for the literature discussion. A total of five articles were selected for the purpose (refer to appendix). The rationale for selecting these five articles is that they identified the fact that domestic abuse occurs when the abuser holds the belief that abuse is an acceptable, entitlement, and is justified, without a likeliness for being reported.
A study conducted a survey with the aim of gaining an understanding of the resources and prevention services that were aimed at reducing rates of intimate partner violence in Los Angeles. The study used certain community based programs and conducted the survey among 54 professionals, recruited from different agencies and programs, with the help of snowball and purposive sampling. Findings from the survey indicate that most of the respondents did not have any training or little training in the intimate partner violence among the LGBT. Approximately 50% reported having helped LGBTs “often” or sometimes” in past years. Furthermore, 92% also reported on the lack of staff with enthusiastic responsibilities towards prevention of LGBT IPV.  Safe housing, counselling, legal aid, and support in traversing the medical system were identified as some of the common strategies that worked in prevention of violence against the LGBT community. The findings elaborated on the fact that people belonging to the LGBT group should be provided adequate opportunities to rely on intervention programs that are publicly available. The study also focused on the fact that much attention is given towards the heterosexual female survivors whose partners (males) are the perpetrators of the abuse (Ford et al. 2013, p.846).
Another study aimed to investigate the impacts of a dating abuse prevention campaign, named the ‘Moms and Teens for Safe Dates’, and recruited mothers and adolescent pairs with the help of community advertisement programs. Upon comparing the mothers and the adolescents at the baseline and during a 6month follow-up time period, telephonic interviews were conducted, in addition to delivery of booklets that had to be completed. Program impacts on physical and psychological victimization, in addition to cyber and psychological perpetration were found to get moderated by the extent of exposure of the adolescents to different forms of domestic abuse. The results elaborate don the fact that dating abuse plays an essential role in interfering with healthy mental and physical development of adolescents. In addition to the harmful impacts that it creates on the physical and psychological domains of the victim, it also acts as a major barrier in the path of trust, loyalty, and attachment, thereby reducing competence and skills in personal life. Noteworthy effects of the program were visible for the adolescents with increased acquaintance to family violence. However, no main or moderated effects were found for perpetration, sexual violence related victimization and/or cyber victimization. The results were encouraging and established the use of the program for preventing dating abuse among the high risk population (Foshee et al. 2015, p.997).
The role of schools in creating provisions for development of a setting where interventions can aim at preventing intimate partner violence and all kinds of abuse were identified in another study. The context in which the prevention strategies or interventions were delivered was considered critical. Some of the contexts identified in the study included a setting that comprises of wider policies, at a regional or national level, and the local culture that helped in shaping the understanding of IPVA. Readiness of schools in implementing the abuse prevention programs and/or interventions were also identified as vital. A shift in social norms among peer groups appeared as a crucial mechanism that brought about a change. Consultation with the young people laid an emphasis on the prominence of authenticity, which in turn could be attained with the usage of drama. The consultation also recognised an increase in interest in directing at interventions on boys. Lack of appropriate prevention materials that were intended for addressing abuse faced by the minority groups comprised of young people such as, Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender were also identified. The findings suggested that the response to local context can be increased by facilitating an involvement of people who are held responsible for delivering and receiving the preventive programmes at school level (Stanley et al. 2015, p.128).
A review aimed to illustrate the interventions that were aimed at preventing and/or reducing all forms of domestic abuse against pregnant women. The review took into consideration the concerns associated with domestic violence against women, in the context of their health and human rights. Programs that comprise of perinatal home visits were identified as a major form of intervention that showed an increased likelihood of lowering the rates of incidence of physical abuse against pregnant women, thereby improving their infant and pregnancy related outcomes. Counselling interventions were also considered effective in showing promising results regarding prevention of abuse against pregnant females. Delivery of cards, of the size of wallets that contain information on the list of community resources, time spending in shelters and individual counselling were established as the major intervention programs that can be implemented in a community, with the aim of preventing domestic violence. Social support programs and intensive advocacy for the victims also demonstrated significant impacts on preventing physical abuse, few years after implementation. Additionally, referral to prenatal check-ups also provided clinicians with the opportunity of screening women and referring them to a range of intervention programs. Thus, screening and intervention plans for women were identified as helpful owing to the fact that they were responsible for referring the identified victims to fitting healthcare agencies and/or specialists for care, such as, shelters, social workers, and counselling. Referral to ‘batterer’ treatment plans for the perpetrators were also recognized as vital (Jahanfar, Howard & Medley 2014, p.61).
Similar findings were reported by another study that aimed to investigate the effects of motivational interviewing on global functioning measures among males, involved in domestic violence acts. Following recruitment of the male participants to a group therapy program named Responsible Choices for Men (RCM), comparison was drawn between the groups during pre-group, first-group and end of group sessions. The results of the study suggested that the readiness of an individual to change is most commonly evidenced via a change of their stage, at the commencement of their therapy, which in turn is associated to global treatment outcomes. Persons at the later stages of change demonstrated significant high OQ scores, thereby suggesting recognition of specific domains in their lives, correlated to their want for treatment. Thus, the impacts of motivational interviewing were considered as clinically relevant for modifying the readiness of males to change their behaviour, with respect to domestic abuse (Zalmanowitz et al. 2013, p.971).
The recommendations regarding domestic violence will be made in the context of social work. Although social workers are entitled with the responsibility of working in collaboration with the victims of domestic abuse, they should portray the skill of engaging with the entire family and link with the experiences of all members that includes the perpetrators, and the victims as well (Jewkes, Flood & Lang 2015, p.1585). Efforts must be taken to ensure that children and all victims of domestic abuse are safe. Often, collaboration needs to be formed with parents, with the aim of encouraging them to gain a sound understanding of the perspectives and views of their children (Drijber, Reijnders & Ceelen 2013, p.175). Direct efforts must also be taken to strengthen the relationship between family members and partners. Social workers are also required to establish strong links with different agencies, with the aim of encouraging improved access to services for the victims and vulnerable families (Hans et al. 2014, p.957).
Management of domestic abuse might be initiated with the introduction of law enforcement, medical services, counselling, and legislation reforms. Owing to the private nature of domestic abuse, most cases are unreported. These encompass violent acts between people present in an intimate relationship in domestic settings. The acts have commonly been identified as sexual, physical and emotional, and are commonly conducted by male perpetrators against females, adolescents and children. Participants in domestic abuse should also be provided with medical treatment, such as, examination by physician, and primary care providers. Enforcing appropriate prevention strategies will help in the promotion of a nonviolent and respectful relationships at the societal level.
Aromataris, E. & Riitano, D., 2014. ‘Systematic reviews: constructing a search strategy and searching for evidence’, AJN The American Journal of Nursing, vol.114, no.5, pp.49-56.
Drijber, B.C., Reijnders, U.J. & Ceelen, M., 2013. ‘Male victims of domestic violence’, Journal of Family Violence, vol.28, no.2, pp.173-178.
Ford, C.L., Slavin, T., Hilton, K.L. & Holt, S.L., 2013. ‘Intimate partner violence prevention services and resources in Los Angeles: Issues, needs, and challenges for assisting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender clients’, Health Promotion Practice, vol.14, no.6, pp.841-849.
Foshee, V.A., Benefield, T., Dixon, K.S., Chang, L.Y., Senkomago, V., Ennett, S.T., Moracco, K.E. & Bowling, J.M., 2015. ‘The effects of Moms and Teens for Safe Dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence’, Journal of youth and adolescence, vol.44, no.5, pp.995-1010.
Hans, J.D., Hardesty, J.L., Haselschwerdt, M.L. & Frey, L.M., 2014. ‘The effects of domestic violence allegations on custody evaluators’ recommendations’, Journal of family psychology, vol.28, no.6, p.957.
Howard, L.M., Oram, S., Galley, H., Trevillion, K. & Feder, G., 2013. ‘Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, PLoS medicine, vol.10, no.5, p.e1001452.
Jahanfar, S., Howard, L.M. & Medley, N., 2014. ‘Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women’, Cochrane Library, vol.11, pp.1-62.
Jewkes, R., Flood, M. & Lang, J., 2015. ‘From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls’, The Lancet, vol.385, no.9977, pp.1580-1589.
McGowan, J., Sampson, M., Salzwedel, D.M., Cogo, E., Foerster, V. & Lefebvre, C., 2016. ‘PRESS peer review of electronic search strategies: 2015 guideline statement’, Journal of clinical epidemiology, vol.75, pp.40-46.
Root, M.P. & Brown, L., 2014. ‘An analysis of domestic violence in Asian American communities: A multicultural approach to counseling’, In Diversity and complexity in feminist therapy (pp. 143-164). Routledge.
Stanley, N., Ellis, J., Farrelly, N., Hollinghurst, S. & Downe, S., 2015. ‘Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions’, Children and youth services review, vol.59, pp.120-131.
Zalmanowitz, S.J., Babins-Wagner, R., Rodger, S., Corbett, B.A. & Leschied, A., 2013. ‘The association of readiness to change and motivational interviewing with treatment outcomes in males involved in domestic violence group therapy’, Journal of interpersonal violence, vol.28, no.5, pp.956-974.

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