Human Resource Management Practices : Performance In Organisations

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Human Resource Management Practices : Performance In Organisations

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Human Resource Management Practices : Performance In Organisations

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Describe about the Human Resource Management Practices for Performance in Organisations.

Literature Review
The literature review is based on “Human Resource Management practices for employees’ performance in Wesfarmers”. Jiang et al., (2014) stated that Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the policies as well as practices which are involved in carrying the human resources. This particular literature review reflects on some of the factors of HRM practices that assist in effecting the performance of the workers. The factors are recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal and training (Rae, Sands & Gadenne, 2015). These factors are vital for improving the performance of the employees within the organization to meet with organizational goals of Wesfarmers.
Recruitment and Selection of Employees
Kehoe and Wright (2013) stated that the HRM system consists of division of labour as well as specific jobs. In such a system, limited number of employee contribution exists. The employee’s policy specifies comprehensive rules concern progression of profession as well as compensation. Buller and McEvoy (2012) opined that recruitment and selection gives high retention to the employees. The objective of the professional recruitment strategy is to magnetize the right number of trained applicants as well as strengthen company brand within the labour marketplace. The recruitment and selection strategies should be resolute after job analysis highlights the necessary skills as well as abilities. Bratton and Gold (2012) argued that for the external recruitment of Wesfarmers, advertising media such as print, social media are to be considered. The major trends within recruitment are use of technology, development of HR responsibilities, recruitment in business and outsourcing of recruitment agencies.
Moscardo et al, (2013) opined that recruitment as well as selection fits in to add value to the HR procedures. The recruitment process is defined as the capability of the organization in order to supply new employees, remain the organization operating as well as improving the quality of human capital. The quality of process of recruitment is major driver for happiness of the managers with the services offered by the human resources. Robbins et al., (2013) stated that goal of this process is to locate the best recruitment sources, hiring process and keep the organization competitive within the marketplace. The recruitment procedure of Wesfarmers requires a strong sustain by enthusiastic recruitment software solution. Buller and McEvoy (2012) argued that many of the vendors offer various recruitment software solutions; therefore the organization requires choosing the right solution in order to meet the organizational goals.
Compensations and benefits of the employees
McCauley et al., (2013) stated that the researcher is searching for the factors that would affect the performance of the employee. Purce (2014) argued that one of the best ways for production of the Wesfarmers is reward package for the employees. This compensation strategy enables the economic manpower in order to maximize income in return of great effort (Bratton & Gold, 2012). It also attempts to employee motivation with productivity as well as output of the organization. Intrinsic paybacks in terms of rewards as well as compensation enhance the performance of the employees to some degree. Kehoe and Wright (2013) stated that the employees are motivated when they are given monetary rewards directly for their presentation. Antonioli, Mancinelli and Mazzanti (2013) investigated that there is a positive association between compensation as well as work performance.
Bratton and Gold (2012) argued that sometimes, there arises a gender differences in pay raises such as women receive higher pay than men. One of the reasons is reduced stereotyping. Antonioli, Mancinelli and Mazzanti (2013) suggested that worn has lower base pay and increase in higher pay is due to difference in amount of information available to the decision markers. Purce (2014) argued that when managers have limited information, then it tends to make stereotypical judgements. Equity theory of motivation asserts that the employee is equally treated in the organization. This theory is based on the idea that the individuals are motivated by fairness. Shields et al., (2015) suggested that higher is the individual’s perception of equity, the employees are more motivated, and if it is vice versa, then they are de-motivated. Equity theory is totally based on principle that the employees should put forth a particular employment of effort that they feel contrasts fairly to the financial rewards that they obtain.
Performance appraisal of the employees
Baskerville and Wood-Harper (2016) investigated that employees are developing positive attitudes when they receive high favourable outcomes. The level of financial rewards such as amount of pay that the employees receive is found to be pessimistically related to their income levels. The social rewards give a positive influence of the job performance. Buller and McEvoy (2012) opined that the management should implement a control system which should reduce cost of labour by increasing performance standards as well as maintenance of wages. Resistance in form of strikes, high rate of grievance are found to be costly for the firm in terms of productivity as well as quality. The companies are influencing the employee’s perception of fairness as well as pay their employees by developing a reward strategy (Antonioli, Mancinelli &Mazzanti, 2013). Rensis Likert’s Participative Decision Making Theory is used by the organization so that they can demonstrate the effect of the HRM on the employee’s performance (Kehoe & Wright, 2013). The employees should participate into decision making process so that they can take important decisions regarding any important situations.
Wesfarmers performance appraisal considers the goals of the appraisal system such as to improve the productivity, improvement of personnel decisions such as promotion, change of job. Bratton and Gold (2012) opined that in order to develop the appraisal of system for the organization, an entrepreneur is required to consider size of their employees, goals of company, measure performance, increase in pay, communication of appraisal system as well as performance planning. Need theory complements on the statement that in which outcomes motivate people in order to contribute valuable inputs to the job as well as perform at high levels. Robbins et al., (2013) suggested that using this theory, the organizational management should motivate the employees to fulfil their needs and wants.
Training of the employees
According to Baskerville and Wood-Harper (2016), training can influence the performance of the employees by improving their skills, knowledge as well as development in abilities to do task. The findings of the author reveal that the training plan influences the commitment of the organization, knowledge of participants as well as organization based self-esteem. Jiang et al., (2012) indicated that the training influences the performance of the managers as well as employees. Similarly, Purce (2014) found that training program raises the employee morale as well as increases their overall performance. This program allows the employees in order to acquire greater competencies which are required in order to perform jobs effectively as well as accurately as per the organizational requirements.
Antonioli, Mancinelli and Mazzanti (2013) opined that training is given four basic grounds for the new candidates such as it familiarizes to the mission, vision, rules as well as regulations of the company. The existing employees are trained in order to enhance the knowledge. It also takes place when there is requirement for any amendments; it comes up with the changes. Finally, when career growth becomes important for the organization, then training should be given so that the employees prepare to share their responsibilities of higher level job. Shields et al., (2015) argued that due to importance of training program, a trainer can encounter resistance from both employees as well as managers. In order to successfully develop training as well as development program of the organization, the management should provide a job description upon which the activities of employee training is built. Training is mainly provided to meet with basic competencies of the job, and it is to be done by the supervisor.
Research Methodology
Research Philosophy
While conducting a research, the research philosophy deals with the nature as well as development of knowledge. Collection of secondary data and engaged into the data analysis in order to reply to the research questions helps in creation of new knowledge (Baskerville & Wood-Harper, 2016). In order to address research philosophy in the study involves in awareness as well as formulating of assumptions (O’Leary, 2013). There are three philosophies that are used such as positivism, realism and interpretivism. For this particular study, interpretivism is to be chosen as a research philosophy as this work depends on optional information gathering and this strategy is the best to check the experiences and the background of Wesfarmers. The secondary information ought to be gathered effectively with utilizing this theory (Buller & McEvoy, 2012). Aside from this, the mistakes in the information investigation are likewise moderated effectively.
Research Approach
There are two types of research approach for this study such as deductive and inductive approach. In this particular research study, inductive approach is used. It starts with the research questions, aims as well as objectives that are required to achieve during the research process. It is considered as perfect for this study as it relates the examination point with research questions and it helps the examiner to do useful investigation with the gathered information.
Research Design
Ritchie et al., (2013) stated that this is the design which structure the scientific work for the study. It also gives direction of the research. The method which is chosen to do the data analysis will affect the results as well as concludes on the findings of the research. Most of the researchers are interested in getting the result through reliable observations which help them to understand the research topic as well as research questions. It is the course of action of the conditions to gather the information investigation of the information in such a methodology such, to the point that it expects to consolidate centrality to the motivation behind examination with the theoretical framework in the process (O’Leary, 2013).
Mainly, there are three types of research design processes such as exploratory, explanatory as well as descriptive. In this particular study, descriptive research design is perfect as it helps to conclude the findings of the study. Utilization of this examination outline empowers to pick up data on the qualities of the specific individual to do the basic business work (Baskerville & Wood-Harper, 2016). Through use of this specific examination plan, distinctive task variables are cleared and justifiable.
Data collection procedure and methods
Data collection procedure
Mainly, there are two kinds of data collection procedures like quantitative and in addition qualitative methodology. The quantitative methodology includes the gathering of information that is putting the examination in formal too rigid technique. The qualitative methodology depends on the techniques for subjective assessment of suppositions and additionally states of mind (Ritchie et al., 2013). Utilizing this approach, the investigator can do inside and out examination on the exploration point and do analysis on the gathering data from publicly available sources like case studies of Wesfarmers, websites of the company and many others. In this specific exploration concentrate on, the information is dissected utilizing the subjective information accumulation methodology to comprehend the HRM practices for employees’ performance in Wesfarmers.
Data collection method
In this particular study, secondary data collection method is used. The data are collected by means in order to overcome with difficulties to gain access to the managers with a sample group those have approaches pertaining to the research questions. The data for the secondary data are collected from the publicly available sources like case studies of Wesfarmers, websites of the company, press articles, financial reports of the company, journals, published interviews and news releases. Ritchie et al., (2013) identified some of the benefits of the secondary data collection method are much of the data are available within public domain. Due to selection of public cases on the company, the cases ensure the validity of the data as well as findings. As the data are open to the public scrutiny, therefore they are of high standard (O’Leary, 2013). It is the skill of the experts that the annual reports of the company are offered of high quality which gives high-quality HRM strategies of the company.
Antonioli, D., Mancinelli, S., & Mazzanti, M. (2013). Is environmental innovation embedded within high-performance organisational changes? The role of human resource management and complementarity in green business strategies. Research Policy, 42(4), 975-988.
Baskerville, R. L., & Wood-Harper, A. T. (2016). A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2 (pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing.
Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2012). Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review, 22(1), 43-56.
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Han, K., Hong, Y., Kim, A., & Winkler, A. L. (2012). Clarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance. Human Resource Management Review, 22(2), 73-85.
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal,55(6), 1264-1294.
Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of management, 39(2), 366-391.
McCauley, C. D., Derue, D. S., Yost, P. R., & Taylor, S. (2013). Experience-driven leader development: Models, tools, best practices, and advice for on-the-job development. John Wiley & Sons.
Moscardo, G., Lamberton, G., Wells, G., Fallon, W., Lawn, P., Rowe, A., … & Renouf, M. (2013). Sustainability in Australian business: Principles and practice. Wiley-Blackwell.
O’Leary, Z. (2013). The essential guide to doing your research project. Sage.
Purce, J. (2014). The impact of corporate strategy on human resource management. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals), 67.
Rae, K., Sands, J., & Gadenne, D. L. (2015). Associations between organisations’ motivated workforce and environmental performance. Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, 11(3), 384-405.
Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.). (2013).Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage.
Robbins, S., De Cenzo, D., Coulter, M., & Woods, M. (2013). Management: the essentials. Pearson Higher Education AU.
Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., … & Plimmer, G. (2015). Managing Employee Performance & Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press.

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