INT103 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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INT103 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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INT103 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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Course Code: INT103
University: Stotts College

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Country: Australia

Students are required to submit a written essay on one theory of human development.Psychosexual theory Cognitive developmental theory Learning theories Social role theory Life course theory Psychosocial theoryCognitive social historical theoryDynamic systems theory

“Cognitive developmental theory”
When a human being is born, the world stands new to him. The human being is unaware of the environment, surroundings, languages, and way of expressing things. These understandings are based on the development that gradually takes place. The infant is born with a basic structure of brain which comes genetically and then the brain development takes place through experiences, understanding of thoughts, understanding of language, the process of brain development that takes place in the human beings is known as the cognitive development. Various psychologists have given their opinions on the theory of cognitive development (Saxe, 2015). In the following essay the concept of cognitive development, various aspects to it are analyzed in details with the support of different theories. Since child development to the adult is a complex process, no one theory can describe the whole process of development of human intelligence. Perhaps theory by Jean Piaget is the most comprehensive theory.
He was the foremost psychologists who explained how human intelligence develops from a child to the adult; the theory is named as development stage theory. It explained how human beings acquire; constructs and use the knowledge acquired. He opposed the idea that the child’s brain, his abilities to understand and make perceptions are a trait that is fixed rather he explained that the cognitive development is a two way process i.e. through biological maturation & through the environmental exposure to the child. He was of the view that children develop understanding of the world themselves by experiencing the deviations between what they have been taught and what they actually discover in the environment & then based on these deviations they create their own perception and thinking (Patric,G & Victoria, L. 2011).
Before Piaget theory came, the world worked on the assumption that adults can think in a much better way than the children, whereas his theory ruled out this perception by showing that the children can think in much more advanced & innovative ways in comparison to adults. This theory is basically concerned with

Children and not the adults.
Development and not learning.
Explains different stages of development (Leod, 2018).

This stage explains the development from the day the baby is born till he turns 2 years of age. In this age span the baby starts using all of his six senses. He gets know that even if any object for example his mother is not around him, she still exists, i.e. in this age group the child starts understanding the concept called object permanence (Guell, Gabrieli, & Schmahmann, 2018).
 This is the second stage of development which explains the processes that takes place in the age span of 2 to 7 years (Neisser, 2014). At this age, the child starts expressing his attained knowledge through language, pointing out things and pictures. At this stage following three aspects happens.

Egocentrism: It talks about the scenario where the child can only  express his feelings and cannot understand what others want to say.
Animism: according to this term, the child thinks that his toys are alive and can touch, feel and talk like human beings.
Centration: according to this the child can focus only on any one aspect of the situation howsoever relevant the other situation might be.

Concrete operational
This happens at the age span of 7 to 12 years, at this stage the child starts to think logically about the events and objects. At this age the child also learns that if the form of the object is changed, the amount or the volume of the thing will not change, this phenomena is called as conservation (Carey, , Zaitchik, & Bascandziev, 2015).
Formal operational
 This is the final stage which occurs at the age of 12 years and onwards.  At this age the child starts to think in depth about any event or object and can reason in their thoughts even without having any physical existence of the event or object (Powell& Kalina, 2009).
Bruner Theory.
This is the other theory on the cognitive development, Bruner theory do not support that the cognitive development takes place as per the stages based on the age groups of an individual. He explains that the cognitive development takes place from the experiences that a person gets from his environment, he supports that a human mind prepares a code in his brain about any experience and through that code, the person can go deeper in a situation and analyze the data and then finally predict the situation similar to the one he experienced. Thus he says that children must acquire how to represent the recurring events in the environment in which they stay (Pavlov, 2012).
This theory suggests that cognitive development takes place with the interaction of human being of his innate capabilities with the technologies such as language, images along with the obvious electronic media like computers and televisions. Bruner theory explains the following three stages of development.
Enactive stage
In this stage of learning, knowledge and response to the situation is backed up in the brain through motor skills for example in case of an adult while operating a lawn mower, we know which direction to go first so that the grass is cut quickly and systematically.
Iconic stage
In this stage, the human being develops the understanding with the help of the images. When we start learning some new subject, it can be learnt or understood better with the help of diagrams, charts along with the verbal information (Bruner, & Haste, 2010). 
Symbolic Stage:
At this stage, the understanding develops by the use of various symbols, words to identify any object matter.
At the time of the birth of a human being, only the basic structure of the brain is developed, rest of the development of the brain takes place with the experiences and learning there from. To study the cognitive development, two theories have been analyzed in details above. Jean Piaget theory only emphasized on to the development of the child, he has explained different stages through which the development of the child intelligence takes place. He explains that the child must be made ready to learn a specific subject matter. While that of Bruner theory he explains that the child can be taught anything at any point of development through the use of motor skills then through images and then with the symbols. Bruner theory applied to adults also along with the children. Hence to conclude, the cognitive development takes place from the birth of a human being till he stays alive, by getting across various experiences and information, and various theories have been evolved to support such developments.
Bruner, J. S., & Haste, H. (Eds.). (2010). Making Sense (Routledge Revivals): The Child’s Construction of the World. Routledge.
Carey, S., Zaitchik, D., & Bascandziev, I. (2015). Theories of development: In dialog with Jean Piaget. Developmental Review, 38, 36-54.
Guell, X., Gabrieli, J. D., & Schmahmann, J. D. (2018). Embodied cognition and the cerebellum: Perspectives from the Dysmetria of Thought and the Universal Cerebellar Transform theories. Cortex, 100, 140-148.
Leod, S. M. (2018). Jean Piaget’s Theory of cognitive development Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Neisser, U. (2014). Cognitive psychology: Classic edition. Psychology Press.
Patric,G & Victoria, L. (2011). Understanding and applying cognitive Development Theory.,Jossey Bass : sanfrancisco.
Pavlov, I (2012). Bruner-Learning theory in education Retrieved from: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Powell, K. C., & Kalina, C. J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: developing tools for an i effective classroom. Education, 130(2).
Saxe, G. B. (2015). Culture and cognitive development: Studies in mathematical understanding. Psychology Press.

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