Management Planning And Control Techniques

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Management Planning And Control Techniques

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Management Planning And Control Techniques

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Discuss about the Project Management Planning and Control techniques.

The project management is a set of techniques that are being, used by several organizations to obtain their operational and strategic objectives in recent times (Kerzner 2013). Projects are, generally used for enabling changes and allowing the organizations to implement new strategies effectively. And, hence these projects need an effective project management system.
The Denver International Airport also known as DIA is located at Denver, Colorado in USA (Grace 2014). It is the largest airport in United States by Total area. This report is generally, based on the case study of the project on The Denver Airport baggage system in 1990.
This report consists of the problems faced in the projects and the recommendation about the solutions of those problems.
Project Problems
The project was a huge disaster. The system was the most complex baggage system in the world. The system had faced multiple failures.
Line Balancing:
For optimizing the system performances, distribution of empty carts had to be made (Fleszar 2016). They had to be ready to pick up new bags. There were more than 100 pick-up points. So, it was very difficult to meet the needs of all the pick­-up points by supplying enough number of empty carts to them. It was very difficult to design any kind of algorithm for anticipating where the empty carts should be queued. As a result there would be a delay in picking up the bags and ultimately would create a delay in the whole procedure.
Initiation of the process:
The whole process of constructing the system and requesting for bids of system was only, started in 1991. As a result, of this delay in initiation only two years were, left for completion of the system and testing them within the stipulated time.
Decision to proceed:
There was a change in the strategy for implementing the system. The project management team had assumed that the baggage handling arrangements would be, made by the airlines on their own. That was changed when, the project management team had a realization that an integrated system was to be built. They realized that they were required to take full responsibility about this and run the project themselves. This was an impossible task in a span of two years. Hence, it was a very bad decision by the project management team and BAE to proceed with the project knowing that the stipulated time is very less.
Schedule and budget commitments:
In the project, BAE made a commitment for completion of the project within the stipulated time and resource. But, the people in Higher level of management structure of BAE had failed to recognize the level of importance of the project and they had underestimated the complexities involved in completion of the project. As a result, it was not possible to complete the project within the stipulated time and the budget increased considerably above estimation.
Design of the buildings and physical structure:
The baggage system and the buildings, represents a single system that is integrated (Skorupski and Uchronski 2015). As because, the baggage system and the other physical structure would share services such as, the electrical supply. The designing of the physical building was started way before, the designing of the baggage system. Hence, the physical building team only kept allowances for the baggage system that they thought would be enough. But, the allowances were not enough for the baggage system. Hence, the baggage system was required to, be implemented within the stipulated scope. So, it had to make sharp turns and this increased the load placed on the system. The stresses that were, applied on the turns were major contributors to the breakdown of the system.
Risk Management Failures:
The project has come across several technical problems for which no allowances were in place. One of the major problem was that the power fluctuation of the electrical systems (McNeil et al. 2015). As a result the system crashed. The resolution to this problem was installation of filters within the power system. This again took more time for testing and installation of the filters. This was a very predictable issue but was not resolved properly as a result, of careless risk management by the project management team.
Architectural and Design issues:
The system consisted of near about 100 PCs, which were, connected via a network. Failure in any one of them could result in outage. This was because there no backup system in place for the failed systems. In addition to this, the system was unable to detect jam, which caused a greater in convenience.
The following theories can be, recommended for an effective Project Management:
Project Life Cycle:
The project life cycle is series of activities that is to be, followed in order create an effective project (Burke 2013). There are four stages of a project life cycle. The four stages are:-

Initiation: This phase of project management is involved with developing a case, doing a feasibility study, appointing a project team and setting up a project office.
Planning: Creating a Project plan, Resource plan, financial plan, Quality plan, Risk plan, Acceptance plan, Communications plan and contacting the suppliers are done in this phase.
Execution: This phase is generally concerned with building the deliverables. Monitoring and Controlling are, also done in this phase.
Closure: In this phase, the project closure is performed and the project completion is reviewed.

Game theory:
Game theory is a concept that can be, applied to almost all disciplines (Colman 2016). The game theory can be applied to project management also especially for the negotiation and decision-making processes. This theory attempts to predict any individual’s success in making decisions, depending on the other’s choices. Game theory is an excellent tool for project management.
Prince 2:
The prince2 was developed, and extensively used by the UK government (Waheed 2014). It is a very flexible technique that, guides individuals and organizations through the essentials for running a project successfully.
Critical Chain project management:
Critical chain project management is a methodology used for executing, planning and managing projects in multi-project and in single project environments. It was develop by Dr. Eli Goldratt (Goldratt and Cox 2016).
Process-based Management:
The process-based management is a technique that makes an alignment of the mission, vision and the core values of the systems of the business. It defines the policies, that is, governing the operations of the company. It ensures that the company is not only efficient but also very effective.
Lean project Management:
The main principle of lean project management is lean manufacturing that is to focus on delivering the work by wasting less recourses and reduced time. It generally focuses on the continuous improvement of the company.
Project Production Management:
Project production management is an application of operation management. The main framework of the project production management is, based on view of a project as production systems. It is possible to apply the theory of project production management on larger capital projects.
A megaproject is extremely large projects having a large scope and has a high budget and longer time span. The generalization of the extreme programming to other kinds of projects is know as Megaprojects.
Benefits Realization management:
Benefits Realization management techniques generally does the management of a project focus generally on the benefits (love et al. 2014). This theory can generally reduces the risk of a project being a failure as they focus generally on the requirement or aims of the project.
For conclusion it can said that the DIA project can be, considered as a template for failure that many other projects can be followed. There were many aspects of project, that contributed, to the failure, but one central problem was the major contributor towards the project failure. The project management team had no prior idea of a system of such a huge scale. This resulted in failure of the project. In addition to all this, the automated baggage system was a very new concept and implementing it in such a huge scale was a matter of huge risk. The failure of the project could have been, avoided with proper planning and implementing proper risk management techniques.
Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.
Colman, A.M., 2016. Game theory and experimental games: The study of strategic interaction. Elsevier.
Fleszar, K., 2016. A new MILP model for the accessibility windows assembly line balancing problem level 2 (AWALBP-L2). European Journal of Operational Research.
Goldratt, E.M. and Cox, J., 2016. The goal: a process of ongoing improvement. Routledge.
Grace, S., 2014. Asset management strategy as Denver international airport approaches twenty-years-old.
Kerzner, H., 2013. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Love, P.E., Matthews, J., Simpson, I., Hill, A. and Olatunji, O.A., 2014. A benefits realization management building information modeling framework for asset owners. Automation in construction, 37, pp.1-10.
McNeil, A.J., Frey, R. and Embrechts, P., 2015. Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press.
Skorupski, J. and Uchro?ski, P., 2015. A fuzzy reasoning system for evaluating the efficiency of cabin baggage screening at airports. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 54, pp.157-175.
Waheed, N., 2014. CMMI, PRINCE2 and PMBOK–The Big Three. Proc. of the International Confrerence on Advances in Computing and Information Technology, pp.6-9.

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