Miami: Community Needs
Subject: Public Health
Overview Description of the Community History Miami, FL has a unique history and a legacy that still shapes its culture and affects its population in a variety of ways. The city was founded in 1896 when its population was represented by only 110 people (United States Census, 2017). However, the further industrial and commercial growth made it one of the most densely populated and well-developed areas in the United States.
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Type of community: urban, suburban, rural At present, the community can be described as mostly urban, and the number of its citizens has recently reached 5,500,000 (United States Census, 2017). Nevertheless, despite the steep rise in economic and technological progress, the community has been experiencing massive health problems, which are mostly restricted to awareness issues (Iannelli, 2018). By focusing on the factors that contribute to the development of key health issues such as heart disease, obesity, and HIV, one will be able to design a strategy for handling the specified health concerns effectively. Physical Environmental Considerations Description: General Identifying Data Location The Miami community is located in the southeast part of Florida. Although Miami is an urban area, there are several parks and a number of beaches in the community (United States Census, 2017). The propensity toward keeping green parts of the community intact is a positive tendency given the recent increase in the number of environmental issues on a global scale (Iannelli, 2018). Topographical features The Pine tree Park, South Pointe Park, and Matheson Hammock Park top the list of the community’s recreation areas with the highest levels of biodiversity (Beier, 2014). Thus, Miami residents manage to balance between the enhancement of urbanization and preservation of the city’s ecosystem. Climate The tropical monsoon climate, which is mostly even due to a comparatively small (55.25 sq. miles) area, makes summers in Miami hot and humid, while winters are short and warm. Boundaries, Area in Square Miles Miami’s area is 55.25 sq. miles (United States Census, 2017). Environment Sanitation: water supply, sewage, garbage, trash However, recent changes in the state’s legislation may affect the quality of life in Miami. Particularly, a bill passed lately allows using drinking-water aquifers as the areas for dumbing sewage waste (Iannelli, 2018). The specified alteration is likely to cause a massively negative change in the levels of pollution, which are rather low in Miami at present.
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Pollutants, toxic substances, animal reservoirs or vectors, flora, and fauna For instance, air pollution levels are currently at 28.37, whereas drinking water pollution rates are at 28.26 (“Pollution in Miami, FL, United States,” 2018). Air quality: color, odor, particulates The air quality is moderate, with few odors and particularities. In addition, ongoing research of the vectors of existing diseases, as well as their connection to animal reservoirs, is expected to deliver impressive outcomes (Beier, 2014). Air pollution levels are moderate in Miami (“Pollution in Miami, FL, United States,” 2018). Food supply: sources, preparation The food supply channels work properly, although minor improvements in infrastructure would help deliver products faster. Potential disaster in the population When it comes to defining some of the weakest aspects of the community, one must list safety issues as the top reason for concern. Florida, in general, and Miami, in particular, are extraordinarily prone to an array of natural disasters, from hurricanes and tornadoes to wildfires, floods, and tropical depressions (Iannelli, 2018). The extent of disaster preparation in the population The Florida Division of Emergency Management, however, creates an environment in which the levels of disaster preparedness remain consistently high in all community members (Florida Department of Health, n.d.). Thus, the problem of disaster threats is controlled. Housing Types of housing (public and private) The housing market in Miami is represented by both public and private sectors and is very competitive, hence the necessity to maintain buildings in good condition. Condition of housing The condition is mostly good, although impoverished areas lack good houses.
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Percent owned, rented The prices for houses range from $50,000 to $300,000, yet most of the houses cost within the $100,000-300,000 range (“Miami-Dade County, Florida housing data,” 2018). The percentage of rented homes is high across the entire Miami-Dade County, reaching a total of 46%, with average rent amounting to $1,200 per month (“Miami-Dade County, Florida Housing Data, 2018). Housing for special populations Near homeless Community authorities are also planning to provide new housing opportunities for the impoverished, as well as for migrant workers and other types of special populations (“Housing,” 2018). Homeless Similarly, homeless people are provided with shelter. Frail elders There are several major nursing homes for the elderly. Leading Industries and Occupations Among the leading industries in Miami, one must mention the Tourism and Agriculture domains. The specified areas provide numerous opportunities for using the available resources to their full potential. People Population Profile The total population for 2017 Citizens of Miami represent a vast number of cultures and ethnicities. According to the 2016 census results, the total number of people living in Miami is 463,347 (United States Census, 2017). Population density The current population density is 353.4 citizens per square mile (“Florida population 2018,” 2018).
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Population changes in the past 10 years Over the past decade, the population of Florida has grown impressively, and its diversity rates have increased. In 10 years, the ethnicity of people living in Miami has shifted significantly. Although the area is still populated mostly by white Americans, the number of Latino and particularly Cuban citizens has grown as well (U.S. Census Bureau, 2018). The observed phenomenon can be explained by an increase in the effects of globalization, such as a steep rise in diversity levels Population per square miles There are currently 12,139.5 people per sq. mile in Miami. Mobility A large percentage of people living in Miami own a car. Types of families Families are also very numerous here. There are currently 161,605 households in the community (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018). However, there is also plenty of pedestrian-friendly streets in the city, which makes the transportation process comparatively easy for community members. Biological Considerations/Vital and Demographic Population Characteristics Age composition Most people in Miami are aged between 25 and 60 (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018). Sex distribution At present, there are 67% women in Miami (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018). Race distribution The high diversity rates within the Miami community can be explained by the steep increase in the rates of urbanization and the subsequent globalization of the community. As a result, members of different cultures integrate into the Miami community successfully. The increase in diversity has led to a massive change in race distribution within the city. Ethnic group composition and distribution At present, there are 18.02% of African American citizens in the community. The community is also represented by Asian (1.6%), Native American and Alaskan (1.3), and Hispanic or Latino (68.6%) people (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018). Mortality Characteristics Annual birth and crude death rates There are currently 12.2 births per 1,000 people in Miami, whereas the death rate made 10,833 in 2017 (Florida Department of Health, 2017). Age–specific death rate At present, the level of mortality is higher among people over 60 (United States Census, 2017). Infant mortality rate The increase in the levels of multiculturalism has caused a shift in the value system within the community and allowed promoting cooperation among community members. However, several factors may cause the number of community members to shrink. Infant mortality rates in Miami have risen to 4.2% (“Florida Miami-Dade County,” 2018). Maternal mortality rate The maternal death rate is also rather high. Cause-specific death rate (specific health area) Addressing cause-specific deaths in Miami requires pointing to some of the most problematic health issues faced by the community members at present. Leading causes of morbidity A recent report shows that cancer and unintentional injuries have led to the greatest number of mortalities in Miami in 2017 (“Leading causes of death – 2017,” 2018). Incidence rates (specific diseases) 1,230.3 and 820.3 cases respectively occur in Miami (“Leading causes of death – 2017,” 2018). Prevalence rates (specific diseases) The prevalence rate is currently 3.4 for cancer and 2.1 for injuries (“Leading causes of death – 2017,” 2018). Psychological Considerations Significant historical events The Miami beach flood in 1920 and the steep rise in population levels in the 1930ies are key events that have affected Miami residents. Future economic prospects The tourism industry is likely to bloom in Miami. Formal and informal communication network The use of technological advances allows maintaining both formal and informal communication consistent. Rates of suicide and homicides for specific subgroups within the population The levels of suicide and homicide have dropped significantly in Miami over the past few years. Adequacy of protective services. The protective services work efficiently. Common sources of stress. Traffic noise affects the levels of stress. Sociocultural Considerations: The Community as a Social System Socioeconomic status Most residents belong to the middle class. Income of family The family income ranges from $46,000 to $40,000. Major occupations Most people are employed in the tourism industry. Estimated level of unemployment The current unemployment rate is 4.0 (United States Census, 2017). Percent below poverty level Around 15% of people in Miami live below the poverty threshold. People retired Around 16 % (United States Census, 2017). Educational level 27% of Miami residents have a Bachelor’s degree (United States Census, 2017). Religious distribution. 60% are atheistic, while 21.8% are Catholic, while the rest are Protestants. Marriage and divorce rates. Out of 100,000 people in Miami, 8 divorces (United States Census, 2017). Language. English; Spanish. Government and Leadership Type of government (mayor, city manager, board of commissioners). Mayoral. City offices (location, hours, services, access). 111 NW 1st St # 2910; 8 a.m.- 2 p.m. (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018). Education Public educational facilities. Public schools Private educational facilities. Private schools Libraries. Miami-Dade Public Library System Services for special populations Pregnant teens. CAP4kids Miami (“QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida,” 2018) Adults with special problems. The Dan Marino Foundation. Children and adults who are developmentally disabled. Miller Center for Student Disability Services. Children and adults who are blind and/or deaf. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program. Transportation Public transportation is available. Behavioral Considerations Consumption patterns (general nutritional level of the population). The spending rates are lower than in the southern states. Leisure pursuit. People enjoy beach-related activities. Other health-related behaviors (e.g., frequency of seat belt use). Residents use seat belts often. Health System Considerations Identify existing services. Miami Health Services is a local health organization. Assessing current level of performance. The organization meets the set quality standards, although there is a nurse shortage (“Nursing shortage in Florida,” 2018). Availability and accessibility of specific types of health care services. All health services are accessible. Health needs lacking services. Nurse shortage is an issue. The extent to which health care services are overused and underused. People tend to underuse general health services due to the lack of awareness. Financing of health care. Healthcare is financed substantially (Florida Department of Health, 2017). References Beier, J. C. (2014). Environmental changes and mosquito-borne diseases in arid environments. Web. Florida Department of Health. (n.d.). The Florida emergency preparedness guide. Web. Florida Department of Health. (2017). Vital statistics annual and provisional reports. Web. Florida Miami-Dade county. (2018). Web. Florida population 2018. (2018). Web. Housing. (2018). Web. Iannelli, J. (2018). Florida legislators OK plan to dump sewage into drinking-water aquifers. Miami New Times. Web. Leading causes of death – 2017. (2018). Web. Miami-Dade County, Florida housing data. (2018). Web. Nursing shortage in Florida. (2018). Web. Pollution in Miami, FL, United States. (2018). Web. QuickFacts Miami city, Florida; Miami-Dade County, Florida. (2018). Web. United States Census. (2017). Miami city, FL | 2017 Population estimates. Web.