MICR1004 Preventing And Controlling Healthcare Associated Infections

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MICR1004 Preventing And Controlling Healthcare Associated Infections

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MICR1004 Preventing And Controlling Healthcare Associated Infections

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Course Code: MICR1004
University: University Of Greenwich

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Country: United Kingdom

Clinical Project
This assessment has been developed to enable students to acquire knowledge and skills to complete a clinical project. The acquisition of these skills will contribute significantly in your transition from student to qualified registered nurse. The clinical project that you will produce for this assessment is one example of the type of project you may be required to complete in practice.
In some graduate nurse programs new graduates are required to complete a clinical project related to change or innovation in clinical practice. That may mean reviewing and researching an area of clinical practice in the ward that requires improvement, or an area where practice in the ward has been delivered at an excellent level. The new graduate will present their completed project at a ward in-service education session for ward colleagues. They may also be invited to present their project during the hospital Research Week.
For this assessment, you are required to use the case study from Assessment 3, Project Part A (Ysabel Green) to develop your clinical project. In Assessment 3, Part A you identified and discussed two National Health and Safety Standards that were compromised in Ysabel Green’s care during her hospitalisation. In this assessment, you are required to *choose one of those two standards to guide and focus your clinical project.
 Standards : 
“Preventing and Controlling of Healthcare Associated Infection”.
 “Maintaining of the clinical governance”
 “Communicating for Safety for the patients who are under the care from healthcare professionals.”
Your clinical project is to be developed as a project that may be presented either as an in-service to other ward nurses and/or health care staff, or may be presented during Research Week to the wider hospital community as a brochure or an e-poster presentation.
Literature review
Healthcare related contagions are disease that patients catch while getting cure for careful or therapeutic illnesses, and numerous Healthcare-associated contagions are preventable. Current medical amenities utilize numerous kinds of invasive systems and gadgets to treat patients and to allow them to convalesce. Contagions may be related with systems such as operation and the devices utilized in medicinal methodology (Zarb et al, 2012). for instance, drains or ducts. HAIs are key causes of dismalness and death in many clinics everywhere throughout the world and are associated with a substantial increment in medicinal services charges each year (Vardi et al 2013.). Different elements impact the improvement of HAIs, including quiet factors for instance keenness of general wellbeing, understanding consideration factors, authoritative factors and variable utilization of aseptic methods by human services staff.
The most common healthcare-related contagions include Drain-associated urinary region contagions, invasive site contagions, Pneumonia, Bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile. Research proposes that a considerable lot of these diseases are preventable. Endeavors are in progress to grow usage of procedures known to avoid HAIs, advance improvement of viable anticipation instruments, and investigate new counteractive action approaches (Surawicz, et al 2013).. Many endeavors to avert HAIs have concentrated on intense consideration settings. Progressively, human services conveyance, including complex techniques, is being moved to outpatient. These settings regularly have constrained limit with respect to oversight and disease control contrasted with doctor’s facility based settings.
Communicating for Safety for the patients who are under the care from healthcare professionals.
Insufficient correspondence among medicinal services experts is one of the main sources of therapeutic mistakes and patient mischief (Tellalian, et al 2013). An audit of reports from the Joint Commission uncovers that correspondence disappointments were ensnared at the foundation of more than 70 percent of sentinel occasions.
The emergent gathering of lettering on security and blunder anticipation exposes that incapable or inadequate communication amongst coworkers is an enormous contributing variable to unfavorable cases. In the extreme deliberation setting, correspondence disappointments prompt additions in patient mischief, measure of remain, and strength use, and also more serious parental figure dissatisfaction and more quick throughput. In multiple site investigations of escalated care units, poor communitarian communication amongst medical caretakers and doctors, among other particular components, added to as much as a 1.8-crease increment in patient hazard balanced mortality and length of remain
Barriers and facilitators to change and their impact on overall clinical practices
There has been strategies put in place to combat healthcare associated infection but these measures have not been successful due to a number of barriers such as information constraints, attitude of hospital staff towards the patient and the patients’ attitude towards the staff, excellence of medical decisions, and sustenance tools such as rules. All in all, data limitations recognized in the writing can be condensed as not including “the correct data at the opportune time, the perfect individual, and in the correct arrangement.” For instance, dental practitioners needing data normally counsel their colleagues who may not be proficient about current best proof. Despite the fact that proof can be gotten to on the web, experts might not have enough time or expertise to discover the data they need. A few obstructions are naturally part of the oral human services preparing and conveyance framework. (Oshima, Lee, & Emanuel, 2013).  Changes in medicines may require social adjustments among staff, in spite of the fact that rules destined to be utilized frequently center around avoidance, budgetary repayment does not advance preventive strategies.
Usually recognized individual obstructions revealed in the writing incorporate lack of knowledge about examination techniques, poor attention to examine findings, and undesirable performance towards examination, being unfitted for evaluating investigation quality was said to be the best obstruction. Deficient aptitudes in rudimentary examination, absence of abilities  inquiring about and assessing its quality, lack of certainty to execute variation, and novelty to the survey parlance have additionally been said to be an obstructions in the writing (Magrabi et al 2013).
Communication or how the examination is introduced is alternative vital boundary featured in the writing. (Leppo, et al 2013). The physical availability of distributed research, writing not gathered in one area  absence of consciousness of accessible research writing , and factual investigations not being reasonable have all been accounted for every now and again in the writing
Their effect on clinical practices has been variable. Various boundaries have been noticed that keep the genuine routine with regards to rules, including absence of sufficient clinical/specialized abilities and institutional hindrances because of restricted assets.( Edwards et al 2014) Lack of mindfulness, absence of materialness to singular patients, conflict with the suggestions, and in addition logical requirements additionally influence utilization of rule proposals to singular patients.
Various facilitators of research utilize have been distinguished in the writing. These facilitators incorporate administrative and peer bolster, accessibility of time to survey and actualize investigate discoveries, accessibility of applicable research, partners’ help, steady arrangements, and preparing openings Barriers and facilitators to inquire about usage were ordered into authoritative elements, singular variables, correspondence elements, and nature of research.( Alhassan et al 2013).
It is the obligation of all social insurance suppliers to authorize standards of consideration to anticipate wellbeing care– related diseases, Nurses can lessen the hazard for contamination and colonization utilizing proof based aseptic work rehearses that reduce the passage of endogenous or exogenous creatures by means of intrusive medicinal gadgets. (CDC. (2012). Appropriate utilization of individual defensive hindrances and legitimate hand cleanliness is foremost to lessening the danger of exogenous transmission to a helpless patient. For instance, microorganisms have been found in the earth encompassing a patient and on versatile medicinal gear utilized in the room (Sievert et al 2013).
The absence of a proof based human services framework and a political large scale bolster are specified as the key hindrances in creating nation. The foundation of an arrangement of improvement and execution of CPGs as the proof based practice devices won’t be conceivable, except if the boundaries are evacuated (CDC 2014). Information of hindrances will help enhance interpretation of biomedical research for dental specialists. Data in rules should be present, clear, and streamlined for use at seat side; carer’s feelings of dread should be tended to.
Project plan
Prevention and control of health care associated infection
Disease avoidance and control is a logical methodology and practical arrangement intended to anticipate hurt caused by contamination to patients and wellbeing laborers. It is grounded in irresistible sicknesses, the study of disease transmission, sociology and wellbeing framework.in the case of patient X nothing much was done to prevent the infection, she was taken back her ward with not well attended to laparotomy wounds and drain tubes which increased chances of getting infections, even after the infections were diagnosed less was done to control the intensity of the infections resulting from her laparotomy wounds, she was discharged from hospital. Few days after she was discharged the infections symptoms escalated causing her to vomit, dizziness, nausea and difficulty to eat.
The target audience is the both medics (surgeon) nursing teams. The teams are responsible for carrying out the operation and post-operative care for the patient. Especially the nurses since they are the once who take care of patients after the operation,  lack of keenness and negligence when attending to patients after operation has led to infections that have caused deaths of at least 1 patient out of 25 therefore nurses should be enlightened to national health and safety standards. The project aims at creating awareness among medical staff (specifically nurses) the importance for proper care for patients, the importance of good hygiene practice for admitted patients in order to prevent and control health care infections and ways to execute and implement prevention and control of healthcare infections.
The information will be presented to the target audience by a PowerPoint presentation. They are a major tool and easy to use way of conveying message/passing information from one individual to another. PowerPoint presentation are cost effective since no cost is incurred for preparation of PowerPoint slides. Visual effects on the target audience, it improves focus of the audience on the information being shared, and they also provide highlights and annotations. It’s the most convenient way to reach the target audience.
Questionnaires (online survey papers)will be used to evaluate if the information I tried  to pass around was received and to know how the target audience towards the information questionnaires are scalable since it enables gathering of information from huge masses of people easily, they are also flexible and cost effective, they are practical way of data collection and they can target groups of choice and be managed in a variety of ways, it allows use of  both open-ended and multiple choice question formats. Questionnaires can be used to carry out evaluation quick and easily, results can be collected quickly and easily when urgently needed hence they are very convenient for collection of information at an afford cost with ease and effectively.
Good day! Am a fresh graduate, I am conducting a survey on the impact of the training on prevention and controlling healthcare associated infections, your answers will be helpful in carrying out my survey and your support is highly appreciated. Your response will only be used for survey purposes.
 1) What is your age bracket?
[ ] (20-25) [ ] (26-30) [ ] (31-35) [ ] (36-40) [ ] (41-45) [ ] (46-50)
2) What is your occupation in the hospital?
[ ] Nurse     [ ] doctor   [ ] surgeon
3) What do you understand by prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections?
4) What did you learn from the PowerPoint presentation done at your hospital on prevention and control of healthcare associated infections?
5) Does you’re your organization adhere to the national health and safety standards 
6) Was the study of any importance to you and your colleagues? 
7) What efforts are you doing as an individual to improve on the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections?
8) What is measures has the organization put in place to make sure that all national health and safety standards are adhered to
9) What is your opinion on the state of your organization in relation to the national health and safety standards (prevention and control of healthcare associated infections?
10) What would you suggest we educate people about?
Alhassan, R. K., Spieker, N., van Ostenberg, P., Ogink, A., Nketiah-Amponsah, E., & de Wit, T. F. R. (2013). Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana. Human resources for health, 11(1), 37.
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2012). National safety and quality health service standards. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2012). Vital signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infections. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 61(9), 157.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Active bacterial core surveillance report, emerging infections program network, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2014. https://www. cdc. gov/abcs/reports-findings/survreports/mrsa14. html For more information, visit our web sites: https://www. cdc. gov/abcs/index. html, https://www. cdc. gov/mrsa Last Updated: Mar, 1, 2016.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Active bacterial core surveillance report, emerging infections program network, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2014. https://www. cdc. gov/abcs/reports-findings/survreports/mrsa14. html For more information, visit our web sites: https://www. cdc. gov/abcs/index. html, https://www. cdc. gov/mrsa Last Updated: Mar, 1, 2016.
Edwards, J. A., Webster, S., Van Laar, D., & Easton, S. (2014). Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive’s Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool. Work & Stress, 22(2), 96-107.
Huttner, A., Harbarth, S., Carlet, J., Cosgrove, S., Goossens, H., Holmes, A., & Pittet, D. (2013). Antimicrobial resistance: a global view from the 2013 World Healthcare-Associated Infections Forum. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 2(1), 31.
Leppo, K., Ollila, E., Pena, S., Wismar, M., & Cook, S. (2013). Health in all policies-seizing opportunities, implementing policies. Sosiaali-ja terveysministeriö.
Magrabi, F., Aarts, J., Nohr, C., Baker, M., Harrison, S., Pelayo, S., … & Coiera, E. (2013). A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology. International journal of medical informatics, 82(5), e139-e148.
Oshima Lee, E., & Emanuel, E. J. (2013). Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 6-8.
Sendelbach, S., & Funk, M. (2013). Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern. AACN advanced critical care, 24(4), 378-386.
Sievert, D. M., Ricks, P., Edwards, J. R., Schneider, A., Patel, J., Srinivasan, A., … & Fridkin, S. (2013). Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009–2010. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 34(1), 1-14.
Surawicz, C. M., Brandt, L. J., Binion, D. G., Ananthakrishnan, A. N., Curry, S. R., Gilligan, P. H., … & Zuckerbraun, B. S. (2013). Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. The American journal of gastroenterology, 108(4), 478.
Tellalian, D., Maznavi, K., Bredeek, U. F., & Hardy, W. D. (2013). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection: results of a survey of HIV healthcare providers evaluating their knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing practices. AIDS patient care and STDs, 27(10), 553-559.
Umscheid, C. A., Mitchell, M. D., Doshi, J. A., Agarwal, R., Williams, K., & Brennan, P. J. (2011). Estimating the proportion of healthcare-associated infections that are reasonably preventable and the related mortality and costs. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 32(2), 101-114.
Van Den Bos J, Rustagi K, Gray T, Halford M, et al  (2011) The $17.1 Billion Problem: The Annual Cost Of Measurable Medical Errors. Health Affairs
Vardi, M., Levy, N. S., & Levy, A. P. (2013). Vitamin E in the prevention of cardiovascular disease-the importance of proper patient selection. Journal of lipid research, jlr-R026641.
Zarb, P., Coignard, B., Griskeviciene, J., Muller, A., Vankerckhoven, V., & Goossens, H. (2012). The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) pilot point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use. EuroSurveillance Monthly, 17(46), 20316.

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