NUR231 Drug Therapy

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NUR231 Drug Therapy

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NUR231 Drug Therapy

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Course Code: NUR231
University: University Of The Sunshine Coast

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Country: Australia

Prepare a research rationale on a topic and provide a short literature review to justify your research area.
You  have to pick one question related to mental health and AOD issues) topic is – Drug and religion (Drug abuse as the part of sacred rituals).

Religion is gradually becoming a vital area and field of research for mental health professionals and medical doctors alike as revealed by the increment of research over the years concerning psychosocial features and how they impact a person’s physical and mental health. For instance, in the year 2001, there were about 250 articles on health and religion on PsycInfo (CDC Report on Alcohol Consumption Social Costs, 2011). Currently, there are approximately 2500 articles in related to health and religion. Investigation in this area has recognized a positive relationship between self-reported satisfaction of life and religion with positive mental health behaviors like exercise and negative health behaviors like consumption of alcohol as well as drug use. Therefore, because of the vital relationships, it is important for researchers and counsellors to better comprehend how religion relates to drug use.
Numerous religions like the Islam sternly prohibit the use of drugs and alcohol while other religious groups strictly advise against the use of alcohol and other drugs. It should be noted that religion has also shaped and affected our views on the issues and challenges linked with alcohol and drug abuse (Marsiglia, Kulis, Njeri and Parsai, 2011).
Even though Judaism and Christian culture allow or approve moderate use of alcohol, it is interesting to note that there is consistence and clear biblical disapproval of drunkenness, or the consumption of alcohol that can cause harm or impairment to an individual. This is the consumption of alcohol that is normally disapproved and condemned by most of the religious teachings. Consumption of drugs that cause harm, inflict pain or cause mental problems to the users is usually put in this category. These longstanding relationships between drug and religion and the vital roles of spiritual and religious perspective in informing and shaping people’s moral understanding of addiction; have made researchers to be fascinated with the relationship between drug use and religion in the society (Palamar, Kiang & Halkitis, 2014; Yaden, et al 2017).
Aim and purpose of the study
The aim of this research study is to evaluate the relationship between religion and drug use.
Specific objective of the study

To investigate the role of religion in the use of alcohol and drug consumption among the adolescent.
To investigate the role of religion in the recovery of mental and physical health related to alcohol and drug use and addiction among the adolescent.
To investigate the correlation between the religious factors that reduce the consumption of alcohol among the adolescent.

Research questions

Are there any roles of religion in the use of alcohol and drug among the adolescent?
Are there any roles of religion in the recovery of mental and physical health related to alcohol and drug use and addiction among the adolescent?
Is there any correlation between religious factors that reduce the consumption of alcohol and drug among the adolescent?

The significance of the research is that a proper relationship will be established between relgion and drug and alcohol use.
Literature Review
In spite of variety of definitions and meanings, one of the best published research findings concerning religion entails its positive predictive association with health (Acheampong, Lasopa, Striley & Cottler, 2016). Numerous researchers have assessed the association between both health attitudes as well as health behaviors and religion. The research studies used different measures like the spirituality scale and the reviewing of the existing literature in order to assess religion. Since the early 1980s, bodies of research have come up emphasizing and focusing on the association between drug use and religion. Drug use history is entangled with societal values and religion on the negative behaviors associated with drug use and which are often have their bases in religious or spiritual perspective. In Christian and Jewish scriptures, for instance, the drinking of wine is presumed to be part of the religious ordinary life and the virtues are normally adorned (Leslie, 2008). The chief sacramental observance in Christianity and Judaism entail the application of wine. On the other hand, other religions have assigned consecrated uses to other drugs involving hallucinogens and tobacco like peyote.
Various research studies have demonstrated a vital relationship between religion and health relating to drugs, cigarettes and alcohol. People with greater levels of religious involvement normally have lower rates of addiction and abuse and are likely to get longstanding success if they struggled with the challenges of alcohol and drug use (Sanchez, Opaleye, Chaves, Noto & Nappo, 2011). For instance, according to a research conducted by the national longitudinal survey of youth, 37% of the youths who went to religious service on a weekly basis have attempted to smoke in comparison to the youths who attended between twice or thrice a month having 45%. The same research revealed that the youths who attended church service less a month were 53% while those who did not attend the church at all stood at 55%.

Retrieved from https://www.marripedia.org/effects_of_religious_practice_on_substance_abuse 
The same report indicated that 16% of the adolescent who regularly worship especially on a weekly basis have never smoked, consumed alcohol or used marijuana while those who attend worship twice or once in a month stood at 24%, the youths who rarely attend worship or attend the worship less in a month stood at 27% while those who do not attend the worship at all stood at 30%.

Retrieved from https://www.marripedia.org/effects_of_religious_practice_on_substance_abuse
Several past research studies have indicated that a greater level of religious involvement is related with a reduction in the likelihood of drug use abuse or alcohol use. The association between religion and moderate or avoidance of the use of alcohol and other drugs is well published and documented. Psychiatric patients, recovering drug addicts and adolescents all display lower drug and alcohol abuse rates, the more they take part in the religious activities. For youths, greater level of spiritual activities by their parents are usually related to vitally lower rates of drug abuse.

Retrieved from https://www.marripedia.org/effects_of_religious_practice_on_substance_abuse 
Religion as a protective attribute for drug abuse
The stated protective role of religion is a well-documented feature which has been linked to the drug misuse and abuse. The concept seems to be associated with the acceptance of religion connections and the report of spiritual practices. Drug use and alcohol related challenges are linked with a present lack of religious involvement and affiliations. For instance, a study conducted in the United States of America indicated that people who deem and consider religion as important are less likely to abuse drugs or misuse it while those who do not care about religion are more likely to abuse drugs. On the same note, a decrease in religious practices usually contributes to negative health behaviors like caffeine consumption and alcohol abuse. moreover, religion has been viewed to play a vital role in the recovery of not only adolescent health recovery but also to the entire population (Keenan, 2013). People who are more religious and recovery from illness such as mental or physical deal with their resultant pain better, have a better positive perception and opinion of their condition are likely to avoid further illness by getting vaccines (Kelly, Pagano, Stout & Johnson, 2012). Available research is however, unclear, to explain the reason as to why increased religious practice is linked to increased health, yet most researcher assume that mental and physical illness and addiction normally test an individual’s belief and that religion can offer support, provide a way to cope and offer answers.
In the process of recovery, religion has been deemed to play a vital role in the mental and physical health recovery especially due to alcohol and drug abuse (Kelly, Dow, Yeterian & Kahler, 2010; Kelly, Dow, Yeterian & Myers, 2011). Tt should be noted that Christianity is the dominant religion in the world. Empirical evidence that states that religion can directly determine and influence drug use by acting as a moral yardstick, originates from studies which have looked at the reasons why individuals choose not consume alcohol (Jang & Johnson, 2011). Research studies have been conducted to relate and correlate drug use attitude with various measures of spiritual and   religiousness entailing church attendance, satisfaction degree, affiliation which are derived from activities of the church. For instance, the association between alcohol and drug use and religion by the youth has been topic of discussion and scientific investigation by numerous researchers. Qualitative and empirical research studies relate religiosity with the reduction in the consumption of drugs as well as improved indicators for the recovery of individuals who are getting medical treatment for drug and alcohol addiction. Religion serves and acts to protect people from drug consumption especially people who attend places of worship regularly and who abide by the teachings of their respective religion (Koenig, 2012).
Theoretical framework
In order to support the research hypothesis of this study, a holistic view of the alcohol and drug use and religion will be presented with empirical and qualitative arguments. Drug addiction has always been conceptualized as a health disorder which entails components of both compulsivity and impulsivity. Religion and spirituality as well as atheism will be discussed in relation to the alcohol and drug abuse and addiction.
Methodology: Research Design
This research will use both explanatory, quantitative research design. The sample population of the study will be the adolescent youths who are mostly students. The researcher will use structured questionnaire which will be both open and close ended questionnaire. The questionnaire will be sent to the students through electronic email. Research analysis will be done through SPSS and results presented in the form of graphs, pie charts and tables.
Limitations and delimitations
The study has the limitation that it will take place during a limited time, thus, only a representation of the population will be used. Participation of the sample population will be voluntary and, thus, not all the perspectives will be represented.
Ethical consideration
The study will strive to create and uphold confidentiality and privacy of the participants as required in the ethical requirements of the research.
Acheampong, A., Lasopa, S., Striley, C., & Cottler, L. (2016). Gender Differences in the Association Between Religion/Spirituality and Simultaneous Polysubstance Use (SPU). Journal of Religion & Health, 55(5), 1574–1584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-015-0168-5
CDC Report on Alcohol Consumption Social Costs. (2011, October 17). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 14, 2013, from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html.
Jang, S. J., & Johnson, B. R. (2011). The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Youth & Society, 43(4), 1220–1245. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X10393483
Keenan. N. (2013). Spirituality and alcohol consumption in a general population. Retrieved from https://rdw.rowan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1208&context=etd 
Kelly, J. F., Dow, S. J., Yeterian, J. D., & Kahler, C. W. (2010). Can 12-step group participation strengthen and extend the benefits of adolescent addiction treatment? A prospective analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 110(1-2), 117-125.
Kelly, J. F., Dow, S. J., Yeterian, J. D., & Myers, M. (2011). How safe are adolescents at alcoholics anonymous and narcotics anonymous meetings? A prospective investigation with outpatient youth. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40(4), 419-425.
Kelly, J. F., Pagano, M. E., Stout, R. L., & Johnson, S. M. (2012). Influence of religiosity on 12-step participation and treatment response among substance-dependent adolescents? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(6), 1000-1011.
Koenig, H. (2012). Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 1-34.
Leslie, K. (2008). Youth substance use and abuse: Challenges and strategies for identification and intervention. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(2), 145- 148.
Marsiglia, F., F., Kulis, S., Njeri, T. and Parsai, M. (2011). God Forbid! Substance Use Among Religious and Nonreligious Youth. Retrieved https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3043382/ 
Palamar, J., Kiang, M., & Halkitis, P. (2014). Religiosity and Exposure to Users in Explaining Illicit Drug Use among Emerging Adults. Journal of Religion & Health, 53(3), 658–674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-012-9660-3
Sanchez, Z. M., Opaleye, E. S., Chaves, T. V., Noto, A. R., & Nappo, S. A. (2011). God Forbids or Mom Disapproves? Religious Beliefs That Prevent Drug Use Among Youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 26(5), 591–616. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558411402337
Yaden, D. B., Le Nguyen, K. D., Kern, M. L., Belser, A. B., Eichstaedt, J. C., Iwry, J., … Newberg, A. B. (2017). Of Roots and Fruits: A Comparison of Psychedelic and Nonpsychedelic Mystical Experiences. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 57(4), 338–353. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167816674625 

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