Preventive and Well-Care Measures for Men and Women
Subject: Public Health
Preventative care measures Description for an adult male population (21-65) Description for an adult female population (21-65) Immunization recommendations Hepatitis A 21-65 Both male and female adult populations are recommended to have two doses of hepatitis A vaccine given at least six months apart (CDC, 2016a). Cases, when adults should get vaccinated, include: traveling to a country where the disease is common, illegal drug usage, working with infected laboratories, in the case of having severe allergies (CDC, 2016a). Hepatitis B 21-65 The vaccine should be given to both males and females; given as three or four shots over six months (CDC, 2016b). Adults should be vaccinated if: they are at risk of exposure to blood or body fluids during work, share needles, have household contact with an infected individual, have chronic liver or kidney disease, diabetes, HIV infection, etc. Herpes Zoster 60 and older One vaccine dose (Zostavax) should be given to both male and female adults to avoid the disease. HPV 21-29. Three-dose series of the vaccine is recommended to young men who did not get vaccinated earlier. Also include young transgender men through age 26, gay and bisexual men, and men with immunocompromising conditions. 21-29 Three doses are given over the six months. Transgender women and women with immunocompromising conditions are at risk. Influenza 21-65 One annual dose of influenza vaccine should be administered to both males and females of this age group. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) 21-65 Anyone should get at least one dose of the vaccine (up to two doses) unless they had all three diseases. Meningococcal 21-65 Meningococcal vaccination is advised to specific adult groups who at an increased risk for disease (CDC, 2017a). Pneumococcal 21-65 All adults of all ages and genders should get at least one vaccination (up to two) if they are at risk of the infection. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis 21-65 Both men and women of this age group should get a Tdap vaccine, which can be readministered after ten years. Varicella 21-65 Both men and women of this age group are required to get vaccinated if they show no resistance to the infection. Usually, adults get two doses given four to eight years apart. Adult well-care visits. >21 A visit every year: HIV test (through age 64), tdap vaccine, flu vaccine. 22-49 One visit at least once in 4 years: blood pressure check, cholesterol check, HIV test, hepatitis C test (if born between 1945 and 1965). 50-64 One visit in two years: cholesterol, blood pressure, colon cancer screening, prostate cancer screening, abdominal aortic aneurysm screening (Abbott, 2016). 65+ All the above + vision and hearing check. >21: A visit each year: Pap test for sexually active women, chlamydia test, and HIV test, flu vaccine, Tdap vaccine (once in 10 years). 22-49 A visit every four years: Pap test, chlamydia test, HIV test, Mammogram, cholesterol check (every five years starting at 45), blood pressure check (every two years). 50-64 One visit every two years: cholesterol check, blood pressure, HIV test, pap test, mammogram, abdominal aortic aneurysm screening, hepatitis C test (if born between 1945 and 1965). 65+ One visit a year: shingles vaccine, bone density test, colon cancer screening + all tests mentioned above (Abbott, 2016). Cancer screening recommendations Cervical cancer 21-65 All women within the age group should get pap tests (smears) for cell changes on the cervix that in the future could transform into cervical cancer if not appropriately treated (CDC, 2017b). Breast cancer 45-65 It is recommended that women aged 45 and older start undergoing regular mammography screening. 45-54 aged should be screened annually; from 55 – one screening in two years. However, women aged 40-44 can also start annual screenings if at particular risk (Oeffinger et al., 2015). Prostate cancer 40-50 Blood tests and biopsies are the most common types of prostate cancer screening; prostate checks should be conducted once a year or once every two years depending on risks. Colorectal cancer 50-65 Both men and women aged 50 and older should be screened for colorectal cancer. Once a year stool tests include the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test, FIT-DNA test. Flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, and colonoscopy every ten years. Eye screening 21-39 Both men and women should complete examinations with ophthalmologists: once in the 20s and twice in the 30s. 40-64. Recommended getting a baseline comprehensive eye exam at 40 with follow-up exams as recommended by the ophthalmologist (American Academy of Ophophthalmology, 2014). 65+ Complete eye exams every year or two. Other preventative measures Dental screening 21-65 Both men and women are advised to have a dental exam and cleaning every half a year. The dentist can recommend more frequent visits if necessary. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening 65 Screening every two years (ultrasound scans of the abdomen that takes around 15 minutes). 65 Because women are less prone to suffer from the abdominal aortic aneurysm, it is recommended that they complete at least one assessment every five years. Alcohol misuse screening and behavioral counseling 21-65 Both men and women that have a history of alcohol abuse are recommended to be screened when needed. If an individual exhibits signs of behavioral challenges, behavioral counseling is advised. Aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease 45-65 Because Aspirin has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, both men and women can be administered the drug for preventing cardiovascular disease. Hypertension 21-65 Both men and women of the age group are recommended to have blood pressure checks regularly (once a year or once in two years). Those patients at risk of cardiovascular disease should schedule more frequent screenings. References Abbott, T. (2016). Adult well-care visits, screenings, and immunizations. Web.
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American Academy of Ophophthalmology. (2014). Vision screening recommendations for adults 40 to 60. Web. CDC. (2016a). Hepatitis A. Web. CDC. (2016b). Hepatitis B. Web. CDC. (2017a). Meningococcal vaccination. Web. CDC. (2017b). What should I know about screening? Web. Oeffinger, K., Fontham, E., Etziono, R., Herzig, A., Michaelson, J., Shih, Y-C.,… Wender, R. (2015). Breast Cancer Screening for Women at Average Risk. JAMA, 314(15), 1599-1614.
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