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Primary Health Care Constructs And Contexts

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Primary Health Care Constructs And Contexts

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Primary Health Care Constructs And Contexts

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Discuss about the Primary Health Care Constructs and Contexts.
 
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Introduction
Health promotion is essentially the process of enabling individuals to increase control over their health and by so doing lead to improvement. National health promotion programs are strategies started mostly by the government or non-governmental organizations which are aimed at improving people lifestyles by enabling them to increase control over their health. National health promotion programs make a positive contribution as far as improvement of human health is concerned. Within the framework of primary health care, health promotion plays a fundamental role in improving outcomes in the prevention as well as control of both chronic and communicable diseases. It is the duty of the government to take care of its people by coming up with national health care programs which are aimed at improving their health. The  government is also tasked with coming up with strategies aimed at ensuring there is quality, affordable and accessible health care for all citizens. Health essentially starts in our homes, workplaces; communities as well as schools. This explains why some individuals are healthier than others. National health promotions programs are aimed at ensuring that the factors that affect health are solved to ensure that most people if not all are healthy.  Bio-psycho-social and ecological determinants of health affect individuals, families, communities and groups in different settings. Social determinants of health concentrate on social factors as well as the physical conditions of the environment in which individuals are born, learn, live, play, work as well as age. If an individual is unable to access resources to meet his or her daily needs, then there the person less likely to be unhealthy. 
Immunize Australia program is one of the national health promotion programs. This program is aimed at providing support information for a campaign to increase the rate of national immunization by funding free vaccination programs and by so doing improve the people’s overall health and wellbeing. It also funds the purchase of vaccinations with the aim of protecting millions of Australians. Immunization is essentially a simple, safe as well as effective way of protecting individuals against harmful diseases that pose potential a potential threat to the health of the community. Furthermore, immunization reduces transmission in a given society. In other words, the higher the number of people vaccinated in a given community, the fewer the chances of any disease spreading. This program implements the schedule of national immunization program that offers vaccines to sixteen diseases. The Australian government provides funding to the Victorian cytology service for the purposes of administering the national HPV vaccination program register. It also provides funding to the department of human services so as to administer the Australian childhood immunization register which records all vaccinations given to children below the age of seven (Immunise Australia Program & Australia, 2000).
 
The immunize Australia program was started to meet and create awareness in regards to immunizations. Many Australian children are still dying as a result of vaccine-preventable diseases hence the need to carry out extensive immunization among children and adults. Vaccine coverage is low and as a result children are dying as a result of influenza, pneumococcal disease, pertussis as well as meningococcal disease (Immunise Australia Program & Australia, 2000).
Immunization is fundamental since the benefits of outweigh the risk factors. Many of vaccine-preventable diseases are usually highly contagious and can be devastating to an individual’s immune system. Most of the people who are unvaccinated immediately get the disease once they come in contact with it. For instance, as far as whooping cough is concerned, roughly ninety percent of unimmunized household contacts will catch the disease. This statistics show the need for adults and children to take the issue of vaccination seriously since it affects everybody in the family (Immunise Australia Program & Australia, 2000).
A strong primary health care program is the one that supports citizens and communities to be healthy. Vaxon app is one example of this strategy. This is a medical application that is aimed at reminding parents or guardians when immunization for their children is due. The application was developed by the victorian department of health and human services. This strategy in collaboration with the immunize Australia program makes it very hard for children and adults to miss their immunization hence contributing to better health for citizens (Immunise Australia Program & Australia, 2000).
The program aims at sensitizing people on the important of communal immunization. One person being immunized is not enough. The whole community should be immunized so that those who cannot be immunized for one reason or the other stay safe. The health workers should also be immunized to ensure that they are part of the solution and not the problem. When they fail to take vaccination they risk the lives of many who come in contact with them on daily bases (Immunise Australia Program & Australia, 2000).
Culture also impacts the health of a person. An individual’s cultural background influences his or her behavior, belief, emotion, perspective, attitude to illness and pain among others. All of these can influence health and the need to seek health care. Different cultures interpret and filter science differently. Some cultures recommend against seeking modern doctors advocating for traditional doctors who may not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to deal with some complicated illnesses (Naidoo & Wills, 2009). This is where health promotion comes in to try and educate people on ways to improve their health appropriately. Health interventions that are aimed at supporting healthy behaviors have been most successful when they show sensitivity to the culture of the target population. Cultures sometimes spread rumors regarding immunizations hence discouraging community member from participating in the exercise. This program is trying to change some of the cultures misguided views when it comes to immunization and by so doing the overall health and well-being of the nation will improve significantly (Whitehead, 2004).
As far as assessment is concerned, childhood immunization register was established for the purposes of providing quarterly reports on immunization rates. These statistics help to create a clear picture of the situation on the ground and to show whether there are any headways being made (Upton, 2014).
 
Effectiveness of the Program
This program has been very effective because Australia has met the world health organization’s goal in immunization (World Health Organization, 2014). Australia has ninety percent coverage for most childhood vaccines therefore contributing to better preventive health system in Australia. The coverage rate has also been growing among the indigenous people of Australia. In 2012, the percentage of fully vaccinated indigenous children aged 12, 24 as well as 60 months was 86 percent, 92 percent as well as 91percent respectively. The aboriginal and Torres Strait islander communities have also been able to receive extra immunization since they have specific medical conditions that make them more vulnerable as far as some diseases are concerned.
Health inequality has been a very big problem for the various governments that have been in power in Australia. The aboriginal and Torres Strait islander communities have especially those who live in the rural and remote areas have been affected most since they have little or no access to health care services (Baum, 2014). This program has brought about changes as far as this health gap is concerned since these communities are now able to get additional vaccines. The vaccinations can be accessed through community controlled aboriginal medical services or local health services (Marmot & Wilkinson, 2006).
Immunization has led to the reduction of previously widespread childhood diseases. In particular, diphtheria and polio have virtually disappeared as a result of extensive immunization. Statistically speaking, there has been a ninety-five percent reduction in haemophilus influenza type b infections (Fawcett & Ellenbecker, 2015).
Economic stability affects an individual’s, family, ground and communities’ health. In a setting where poverty is high and employment is not forthcoming, food becomes scarce and housing becomes a problem leading to a decline in health. There is a connection between health and social status. A person’s social status in today’s word is dictated by his or her education, wealth, occupation and lifestyle among other minor factors like ethnicity and personality. Essentially each of these or a mix of these factors can cause negative or positive health consequences on an individual. Those in higher social status usually enjoy better health (Swider, Levin, & Kulbok, 2015).  People who live in abject poverty lack opportunities and resources necessary to make good choices as far as their health is concerned. Poverty exposes people to very inferior physical environments, therefore, making them perfect candidates for health problems. Low-income individuals in third world countries often die as a result of treatable diseases but because of financial constraints, they shy away from hospitals. Young children are usually the most affected. Immunize Australia program has proved useful by giving free immunization free of charge therefore bringing on bond families and communities which would have otherwise not had access due to financial constraints (Adrian, 2009).
It is a challenge to provide high-quality and affordable health services due to several complexities like cost, quality, and accessibility. The Ottawa charter for health promotion advocates for there to be healthy public policy, developing personal skills, re-orienting health services, creating a supportive environment for health as well as strengthening community action for health (The Bangkok Charter For Health Promotion In A Globalized World, Global Conference On Health Promotion, & World Health Organization, 2005). The Ottawa health policies have enabled and challenged governments to take an active role in world health public policy as well to provide health care to all sectors of the population. The immunize Australia program is a step in the right direction as far as meeting the requirements of the Ottawa charter (Carryer, Halcomb & Davidson, 2015).
 
Challenges
However, as much as this program has brought about positive benefits there are still areas that need improvement as far as communities are concerned. Some indigenous communities have been sidelined for instance the Australian indigenous communities have been documented as one of the many excluded communities. Health care services have not yet been able to reach all of the aboriginal and Torres Strait islander communities hence the coverage is not as good as it should be (Brobeck, Odencrants, Bergh & Hildingh, 2013). 
Secondly, immunization programs usually target healthy populations since they usually do not seek out immunization. The healthy individuals usually think that they do not need any vaccination since they are less likely to suffer from certain diseases hence they often shy away from vaccination centers (Roden, Jarvis, Campbell-Crofts & Whitehead, 2016).
Thirdly, myths and misconceptions as far as safety the safety of immunization is concerned also pose a challenge. Some people have certain misconceptions and myths regarding vaccinations. They often assume that the immune system can generate its own antibodies on its own so no need for vaccines. This makes the program’s objectives difficult to achieve since holding on to some of these myths and misconceptions makes them hesitant to go vaccinations therefore leading for fall in vaccination rates (Mcmurray & Clendon, 2015).
Finally, when the immunization program is successful, then it leads to contentment especially among health care professionals and the general public. Immunization tends to be undervalued especially in a situation where the serious consequences of disease are no longer experienced firsthand. As such, individuals shift their focus from the immunization to the rare adverse events and misconceptions (Buse, Mays & Walt, 2012).
 
Conclusion
All in all, good health is crucial and that is the reason why health promotion strategies are put in place to ensure that people are informed on what they need to do to ensure that they maintain their good health. There are many determinants of health and the world health organization in collaboration with the governments of the day is trying everything in their power to ensure that good health is not only realized but maintained. This is being done by the signing of charters like the Bangkok and Jakarta charters. These policies are aimed at ensuring that strategies are put in place and executed to ensure that people enjoy good health in all parts of the world.  Immunize Australia program has resulted in an increase in the number of people being immunized. However, a lot needs to be done so as to reach the coverage target and at the same time reduce the rate of conscientious protestations. As far as future directions are concerned, the program is aiming at reaching the immunization coverage target which is set at 95 percent for measles. The reason for the high target is primarily because measles is highly contagious. It will also aid in supporting Australia’s contribution to achieving measles elimination especially in the western pacific region. 
 
References
Adrian, A. (2009). Primary health care in Australia: a nursing and midwifery consensus view. [Australia], Australian Nursing Federation. https://www.anf.org.au/pdf/publications_reports/PHC_Australia.pdf.
Brobeck E, Odencrants S, Bergh H, & Hildingh C. (2013). Health promotion practice and its implementation in Swedish health care. International Nursing Review.60, 374-80.
Baum F, et al. (2014). Evaluation of Health in All Policies: concept, theory and application. Health Promotion International. 29, 130-42.
Buse, K., Mays, N., & Walt, G. (2012). Making health policy. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England, Open University Press. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=990486.
Carryer, J., Halcomb, E., & Davidson, P. M. (2015). Nursing: the answer to the primary health care dilemma. Collegian -Deakin-. 22, 151-152.
Fawcett J, & Ellenbecker Ch. (2015). A proposed conceptual model of nursing and population health. Nursing Outlook. 63.
Immunise Australia Program, & Australia. (2000). Immunise Australia Program. Canberra, A.C.T., Australia. Dept. of Health and Ageing. https://www.immunise.health.gov.au.
Marmot, M. G., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2006). Social determinants of health. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Mcmurray, A., & Clendon, J. (2015). Community health and wellness: primary health care in practice. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=953689.
Naidoo, J., & Wills, J. (2009). Foundations for health promotion. Edinburgh, Elsevier.
Roden J, Jarvis L, Campbell-Crofts S, & Whitehead D. (2016). Australian rural, remote and urban community nurses’ health promotion role and function. Health Promotion International. 31, 704-14.
Swider Sm, Levin Pf, & Kulbok Pa. (2015). Creating the future of public health nursing: a call to action. Public Health Nursing (Boston, Mass.). 32.
The Bangkok Charter For Health Promotion In A Globalized World, Global Conference On Health Promotion, & World Health Organization. (2005). The Bangkok charter for health promotion in a globalized world. [Geneva], [WHO].
Upton, D. (2014). Health promotion. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1710700
Whitehead, D. (2004). Health promotion and health education: advancing the concepts. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 47, 311-320.
World Health Organization. (2014). Health promotion glossary. Geneva, World Health Organization.

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