PSY223 Health And Psychological Wellbeing

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PSY223 Health And Psychological Wellbeing

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PSY223 Health And Psychological Wellbeing

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Course Code: PSY223
University: University Of Tasmania

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Country: Australia


Write a Health and wellness is more than the absence of disease. Therefore being in a state of health and wellness requires more than medical treatment.


According to Elizabeth (2011), health is defined as an individual’s mental, spiritual and physical state. This state can either be a positive or negative. The world health organization has defined health positively as a state of one being free from illness and injuries. This organization connects health with wellbeing and recognizes health as a human right which requires physical and social factors to achieve and maintain it.
On the other hand, health continuum helps us understand the concepts of wellness and illness. In this case, nurses use this model to determine whether a person is well or ill. Wellness is a state of being health whereas illness is being relatively unhealthy. According to Schwer (2011), there are many levels of wellness and illness. This is because health involves a series of degrees where it ranges from optimal levels of health to total illness or even death which is usually described as a continuum. Wellness is a process which is always changing because a person who is well in this minute can have an illness in the other and vice versa. This concept of health continuum gives us the idea that wellness and illness are opposite and can simultaneously occur in one person in different degrees. Illness is associated with disease but can occur on its own because it’s highly a personal state where a person feels unhealthy or ill.
The disease has numerous meanings and according to professional’s health scientist, it is defined as an alteration of the body organs which leads to malfunction, reduction in capabilities and also shortening the lifespan (Rosamund, 2013). On the other hand, un-professional people view a disease as anything that causes illness. Doctors have accepted the many meaning of the term disease but have remained reluctant to adopt these meanings because of the importance during diagnosis and treatment.
Biopsychosocial factors are behavioral and social conditions that affect mental or health state of a person (Nisha, 2015). These factors are categorized into three levels. They include biological, physiological and sociological conditions. Biological influences of health include nutrition, trauma, genetics, and infections. For example, if a person gives birth to twins and one a certain disorder, the probability of the other one being affected is high. This is because these twins share the same genes. Also, poor feeding conditions can influence one’s health. This is because for any person aspiring to be in good health should put into considerations the type of food he or she should take.  Lack of nutrition in the body can cause an illness like kwashiorkor.
Psychological factors that may affect someone’s health include thing like, stress, depression and health beliefs (Barbara & Nancy, 2014). For example, losing a job or experiencing a divorce from a spouse is one of the things which can bring a lot of stress and illness. These life events can, therefore, develop depression which in turn can affect one’s physical health. Also, the use of social media can contribute to health risks. For example, some of the process and medicines shared through social media used to increase hips may make one put all their efforts in getting one without thinking of the negative sides. This is because some of these medicines are not original and can make one grow only one side of the body. Also, some of these processes are done by quack doctors which can bring about health complications.
Social factors that can influence the health and wellness of people include culture, religion, and socioeconomic factors. For example, one may acquire bad behaviors like smoking cigarettes and sexual practices. Smoking cigarettes can bring about liver problems hence affecting the health of a person (Sanchen & Frans, 2012). Also, sexual practices can cause HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea.
Trauma is one example of biopsychosocial factors that can lead to illness (Tamarine, 2018). This factor falls under physiological category whereby a person has undergone a series of negative events in his or her life which brings about mental problems. Some of the sources of trauma include rape, divorce and many more. These conditions can easily make one develop depression and engage in activities which can lead to sexual and drug abuse.
Example of psychosocial factors that is the main cause of illness is depression. This is because a person with depression may engage in bad behaviors like drinking alcohol which can easily bring liver problems. People undergoing difficult times in their lives are the most affected. Also, depression can make one engage in sexual behaviors which in turn can bring about illnesses like HIV and sexually transmitted infections. According to Howard & Linda (2012), people who are depressed find ways of comforting themselves and through this they find themselves engaged in activities which are harmful to their health. Also, bad family relationships can lead to health issues which in turn leads to illness. For example, rejection by family members can lead to stress hence bringing about ulcers. Rejection is mostly faced by children adopted from outside the family.
Health scientists have therefore come up with ways of enhancing health and wellness to the people. One of these ways is by educating people on the behavioral and social factors which can affect their health (Sanchen & Frans, 2012). Educating people on the diet can improve on their health. This is because taking foods of different types improves on body hormones which assist in fighting diseases. The scientists have also advised them on the importance of taking fruits after every meal. This is because fruits improve one’s health and increase the blood level in the body. Moreover, educating people on some of the behaviors which can affect their health is another way of enhancing health. This can be done by explaining to them about the risks associated with taking alcohol and engaging in unprotected sexual practices.  Health professionals should also advise the people on the importance of doing exercises and weight control.
Lastly, advising breastfeeding mothers to always take their children for immunization and injections would prevent diseases like measles and polio from occurring in the future (Nathan, 2011). This diseases would not only affect the health of a child but also that of the mother. Also to prevent stress which brings about depression, people should learn to accept the things just the way they are. This would prevent them from always focusing on the negative effects of the situation. Making health facilities and services available to everyone can assist in controlling some of these health issues because most people cannot afford the money to seek further medical services.
Behavioral responses refer to an individual’s actions and interactions to try to maintain body health (Scott, 2017). One of these actions is through doing exercise. Exercise helps people to loose body weight and to reduce the chances of diseases like obesity. Exercise helps release hormones which enable muscles to absorb amino acids and assist them to grow and reduce their dislocation. Regular exercise reduces the chances of getting chronic diseases. This is because body activity improves the level of insulin and body composition. Body exercise also reduces blood pressure and fat levels. On the other hand, cognitive responses are the ones which come from peoples understanding and beliefs. This includes one’s perception towards a certain disease or cultural beliefs. For example, in a family where there are many people affected by cancer, one may tend to ignore the treatment saying that their family is cursed.
Barbara, A.K & Nancy, A. (2014).  Social Justice and Counselling Psychology: Recommitment through Action/Justice Sociale ET Psychologie Du Counseling: Engagement Renouvelé Dans L’action.  Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy (Online), 48(3), 4-10
Elizabeth, K.M. (2011). Transcultural Wellness: An Exploratory Study.  Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 39(4), 7-15
Howard, S.A & Linda, T. (2012).  Mental Health in Schools: Moving in New Directions.  Contemporary School Psychology, 30-35
Nathan, R.T. (2011). Community Psychology and Liberation Theologies: Commonalities, Collaboration, Dilemmas.  Journal of Psychology and Theology, 39(3), 3-10
Nisha, H. (2015).  Constructing a Psychological Coping Profile in the Call Centre Environment: Wellness-Related Dispositions in Relation to Resiliency-Related Behavioral Capacities.  SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 41(1), 5-10
Rosamund, B. (2013).  Reconnecting Health Visiting and Public Health.  Perspectives in Public Health, 133(3), 2-10
Sanchen, H & Frans, C. (2012). Constructing a Systems Psychodynamic Wellness Model.  SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 38(2), 10-16
Schwer, S. C. (2011).  Core Assumptions and Values in Community Psychology: A Christian Reflection.  Journal of Psychology and Theology, 39(3), 4-12
Scott, S.H. (2017).  Positive Aspirations of Health and Wellness.  Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 109(2), 60-65
Tamarine, F. (2018).  Wellness, Exposure to Trauma, and Vicarious Traumatization: A Pilot Study.  Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 40(2), 6-10

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