PSY375 Health And Wellbeing

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PSY375 Health And Wellbeing

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PSY375 Health And Wellbeing

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Course Code: PSY375
University: Singapore University Of Social Sciences

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Country: Singapore

Research a national health priority area that and present an argument with supporting literature that this is a valid and credible health priority for a specific country or region. You need to justify why this has been classified as a health priority area and argue a case for being an area of focus for health promotion.
Essay should include:
Define the health priority and state why it is a priority. Include information on what it is and who it affects In your priority areas, show evidence of credible and current research data to illustrate that this is a valid argument.
Which specific target groups are impacted? (e.g youth 12-18 years, young adult 18-30 years or seniors 60+)
Illustrate the positioning of the priority within frameworks of wellbeing
How are fundamentals of health promotion addressing this area of concern? Discuss in relation to action and strategies of health promotion. Are there any gaps?

Health and Wellbeing
Health priority is a joint effort involving commonwealth, state governments, non-government organisation, clinicians and health experts (Jacqueline 2008). This initiative sought to center public awareness and health policy on parts that are regarded to cause significantly to the disease burden, leading to high social and financial costs imposed on regional and rural communities. All these situations have suppressive components. Thus an understanding of them helps the population to live health-giving lives thus improving health conditions.
Health priority examines the health care system and health status. It is essential to the point that is of priority because with appropriate and focused attention there is potential for gaining health (Wortmann 2012). It stresses that to reduce the disease burden, there should be holistic strategies, including the continuum of care from prevention through treatment and management. The research had several findings supporting why health priority is important. Under this program, much has improved in peoples life. The study conducted in Australia had these findings. Life expectancy is on the increase for both males and females. Females have a higher likelihood than males. The life expectancy is 6th and 7th in the world for males and females respectively. There is death decline for those caused by car accidents, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. Due to education, cardiovascular death rates are declining.  
The diseases or conditions supervised by the National Health Priority Action Council includes; Cardiovascular, mental disorder, musculoskeletal, neoplasms, injuries, asthma, dementia, obesity* and diabetes. (Kapp et al. 2015) These conditions significantly contribute cost to both individuals and communities (Goldberg & McGee 2011). This cost may be substantial, direct or indirect costs. Direct costs are related to preventing condition or diseases and giving health services to patients suffering from it. They are included in advancing and implementing health promotion programs, diagnosis management and the treatment of the situation. Indirect cost, however, is not related directly to the diagnosis of the disease but occurs because the person has the condition. If a person is ill is going to be impacted in any way.  The might be insufficient to function and thus have low income. They may be forced to pay for the commodity they used to do for themselves, such as washing the clothes. Meanwhile, intangible costs are often impossible to have their monetary value. They usually attach to the emotional side of disability and illness, and they are tricky to measure.
It is essential to point out that the group that is impacted under this initiative is the elderly which refers to people who are of 60+ years. The chronic disease mostly affects the elderly with 78% of them suffering from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, asthma, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, depression or hypertension (Howat, Boldy & Horner 2004). The sad news is that half of they struggle with more than five chronic diseases. The most common condition is arthritis 49%, hearing impairment 35% and hypertension 38% and high cholesterol. In five older adults, one has heart disease, stroke or vascular disease. They also have higher rates of diabetes 15% and cancer 7%. They form 70% of the patients that suffer from stroke and more than 15% of coronary heart disease. Meanwhile, 20 % are diabetes, and it is common for men than women. However, with rising survival for cancer patients and the continuing ageing of the Australian population, cancer recurrence is increasing, raising the likelihood of it being a comorbid disease. Another significant illness for the elderly is dementia, which is at risk with 93% suffering elderly suffering dementia. What they also have a higher rate of injury relates hospitalisations. Falling is the major causes of these injuries and often results in fractures or other injuries.  The growth of the elderly population is predicted to continue. Despite elderly having a higher rate of chronic disease, their health is good and even better.
The elderly often receive care from their children and sometimes it becomes difficult for them to decide who the primary responsibility is thus, becoming hesitant. This is because caring comes with a financial cost.  Elderly also begin to lose friends as they age significantly losing support network. Economically their health is influenced by reduced employment Howat, Boldy, & Horner(2004).  Meanwhile, retirement also comes with reduced income, and this hinders choices of health services.  Due to increased chronic illnesses and disability incidence amongst the elderly, access to health services often becomes difficult.   
Among the various aspects of wellbeing, Health is the tops people priority. Well-being encompasses the existence of positive moods and emotions (Ryff & Keyes 2005). Also is the absence of negative emotions, life satisfaction, fulfilment, and positive functioning. In short, is seen as feeling good and viewing life positively (Currie 2009). Regarding health matters, physical wellbeing, for example, feeling very healthy is critically considered as complete wellbeing.
Health priority is vital in the state of wellbeing. Having good health is better than disease absence. It is a state that permits people to perceive their aspirations, satisfying their urges and coping with surrounding thus living a fruitful, long and productive life (Fredrickson, 2000). Therefore, in this way health assist personal, economic and social development crucial to well-being. Health is the actions of ensuring people expands and enhance their health (Davy 2007). The fundamental of well-being includes the following.

Emotional well-being.
Physical well-being.
Life satisfaction.
Development and activity.
Economic well-being.
Psychological well-being.
Social well-being.
Engaging activities and work.
Domain-specific satisfaction

To achieve these frameworks, it is essential to prioritize on health. There exists a broad correlation between health priorities. Consequently, this results in improved immune system response health, increases longevity, higher pain tolerance, cardiovascular health, reproductive health, and slower disease progression.
Health promotion is the action of ensuring people improves and increase influence over their health Pender, Murdaugh, Parson & Ann (2006). Health is viewed as a source of each day life (Kumar & Preetha 2012). The fundamentals conditions required for good health is peace, education, shelter, food, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, income, social justice and equity. Health promotion three basic strategies as identified in the Ottawa Charter are.

Advocate – good health is the main source for economic, personal and social growth and is a vital element of quality of life. Social-cultural economic, political, environmental, behavioural issues can favor or degrade health.(Bunton & Macdonald 2003).
Enable – health promotion centres in having equality on health. It aims at reducing
Mediate – the prospects and prerequisites for health are not guaranteed by the health section. Health promotions call for joint action for all involved parties encompassing the health and social, economic sectors, voluntary organizations, non- local authorities, industry, and the media, governments and non-governments.

Concerning five actions of the Ottawa charter, there exist several gaps between the health priority and health promotion. Meanwhile, these gaps under are minimized under Close the gap focus in Australia is aimed at achieving equality by 2030. This is done under the following categories
Building healthy public policy
The government wants to ensure there are no gap inequities. They build a national representative body and funded it to train the taskforce to face the problems of remote indigenous education
Create supportive environments
This is to ensure fresh, healthy food is available, improving housing and waste supplies as well as removal systems hence improving home quality.
Strengthens community actions
This includes delivering appropriate cultural primary health services by the Aboriginal community monitored health service.
Develop personal skills
This is done by increasing education levels and providing accessible health care and services. Also is giving education and health care is given to mothers and children.
Reorients health services
Seeks to utilise central health care to deter and encourage health with therapeutic services. Also ensure that the communities have water supplies, housing, and mechanism that support health priority.
Health priority should focus on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that has taken away the lives of 23 people in Saudi Arabia. These statistics were gathered between Jan 21-May 2018. It is a virus disease stretching from Common cold to Severe Acute respiratory. Meanwhile, it is hard to spot the illness because affects people repressed conditions such as chronic lung or renal failure and diabetes. Sadly one in three of those suffering this disease die. Health workers are also at risk of infection if caution is not taken to spot the disease early. Thus given it extreme dangers, there should be a more strong initiative to eradicate this health. Sadly several other cases have been reported apart from Saudi Arabia. Both Oman and United Arab Emirates had reported the incidence, while a man in Malaysia was infected for drinking un boiled camel milk in Saudi Arabia. Thus there is pressing urgency to combat this disease.
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69(4), 719.
Dewar, Jacqueline. (2000). The National Health Priority Areas Initiative. Retrieved from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/CIB/cib9900/2000CIB18
Kumar, Sanjiv and  Preetha G, S. (2012) Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Retrieved from: Healthhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326808/
Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., Parsons, M. A., & Ann, M. (2006). Health promotion in nursing    practice.
Bunton, R., & Macdonald, G. (2003). Health promotion: disciplinary developments. In Health Promotion (pp. 23-42). Routledge.
Wortmann, M. (2012). Dementia: a global health priority-highlights from an ADI and World Health Organization report. Alzheimer’s research & therapy, 4(5), 40.
Goldberg, D. S., & McGee, S. J. (2011). Pain as a global public health priority. BMC public health, 11(1), 770.
Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., De Looze, M., Roberts, C., … & Barnekow, V. (2009). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the, 2010, 271.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & treatment, 3(1), 1a.
World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion. Health promotion, 1, iii-v.
Howat, P., Boldy, D., & Horner, B. (2004). Promoting the health of older australians: Program options, priorities and research. Australian Health Review, 27(1), 49-55. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/231719398?accountid=45049
Kapp, Suzanne, BNsg,GradDipCommNurs, M.N.Sci, & Santamaria, Nick, RN, BAppSc,M.EdSt, GradDipHeal. (2015). Chronic wounds should be one of australia’s national health priority areas. Australian Health Review, 39(5), 600-602. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH14230
Davy, C. (2007). Contributing to the wellbeing of primary health care workers in PNG. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 21(3), 229-45. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777260710751717

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