PUBH6006 Community Health And Disease Prevention

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PUBH6006 Community Health And Disease Prevention

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PUBH6006 Community Health And Disease Prevention

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Course Code: PUBH6006
University: Laureate International Universities

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Country: United States

Topic: Diabetes in London Borough of Hillington

Design an A3 poster that profiles a neighbourhood of your choice either in the UK or another country.
The poster should contain the following details & supported by evidence
.Identify the prevalent disease /diseases in your area/neighbourhood of choice
.Identify the health needs of your area /neighbourhood
.Propose a health promotion intervention (and a rationale of your choice) that will prevent/improve/promote health & well- being of the prevalent diseases/diseases
.Evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen health promotion intervention
.All details on the poster must be evidence based


Diabetes Health Promotion Intervention

Diabetes is the life-long condition that increases the blood sugar level. It is the chronic illness and is one of the major health concerns in many developing and developed countries (Papaspurou et al. 2015). In 2014, 422 million adults were living with diabetes (World Health Organization 2016). Talking about UK, as per 2016/17 reports 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes (Hillingdon.gov.uk 2018).
Diabetes – London borough of Hellingdon

In London borough of Hellingdon, 17,618 people over 17 years of age, are diagnosed with Diabetes as per the Quality Outcomes Framework (QOF) (2016-17). This is slightly above the average 6.5% in London.  The total population in this borough in 2016 was 20,940 (Hillingdon.gov.uk 2018).
According to Team (2016), number of diabetes in Hellingdon by next 20 years will increase to 8,363. It calls for immediate intervention.
Majority may have type 2 diabetes due to increasing prevalence of obesity and lifestyle factors

The rationale for the choice of the disease for health promotion intervention –

The rationale for choosing this disease is the comorbidities and complications
Adults are at high risk of heart attack and stroke, kidney disease, retinopathy, amputation, and others  (Papaspurou et al. 2015)
Across the world there were 1.5 million deaths in 2012 (World Health Organization 2016)
By 2035, there will be895,489 diabetes sufferers in 330 boroughs of London and 3.3% of them will live in Hillingdon (Team 2016).

Health needs of Diabetes patients

Awareness on disease management- Diabetics needs awareness on lifestyle changes such as exercises, physical activity, monitoring of symptoms, and dietary changes. People with low education attainment have poor awareness on diabetes management compared to people with high educational attainment.  People with diabetes show curiosity on lifestyle changes and learn importance of physical; activity. There are people aware of  dietary changes but fail to implement because of lack of access to nutritionist and adequate information from nurses (Vivienne et al. 2014)
Psychological support- Diabetes comes with the emotional and psychological problems such as depression, anxiety and emotional distress due to complications. Therefore, the patients are in need of support such as counselling sessions, referral to therapists, dialectic interventions, and other mental health programs such as motivational counselling. Addressing this need is the important part of the diabetes care delivery (Papaspurou et al. 2015; Verma et al. 2017).
Education – Diabetics need education on self examination of glucose, insulin injection, recognise and prevent hypoglycaemia, recognising complications and seeking support and preventing foot infections (Rosales et al. 2017).

Health promotion intervention – Social media campaign
Considering the severity of the heath concerns and needs of Diabetes, a health promotion plan is developed.  The health promotion intervention chosen for this purpose is the social media campaign to address the health needs of the Diabetic people in London borough of Hellingdon.  The aim of the campaign is to reduce the diabetes prevalence in this borough.  Two tools of Social networking sites that will be used are Facebook and Twitter (Lim 2016; Thornicroft 2011).
The objectives of the social media campaigns are-

Increase awareness about disease management- such as lifestyle changes and preventive steps
health education – recognise complications and techniques to track hypoglycaemia
Increase access to  mental health support programs

Rationale for social media campaign
Social media campaign are considered the “evidence based option” and is most widely used method for health promotion.  Every day millions of people use social media for varied purposes. Health care providers use social networking sites, websites and blogs for promoting health. It is evident from websites like “Medscape” and Facebook promotions such as “Breast cancer prevention Facebook page”.. Facebook users exceed one billion and over 100 million for Twitter (Thornicroft  2011).  Therefore, this strategy is employed for health promotion intervention to reduce diabetes rates in London borough of Hellingdon.  The  tool helps nurses and volunteers communicate with large number of people in small span of time (Mirowsky 2017).
The target population for the social media campaign –adolescents and adults
Campaign strategy
The stakeholders are- physicians specialized in health education and nurses and mangers from various counties to supervise the intervention.  Next step is to build partnership with Non-Governmental organisation for funding (Ventola 2014).  Standard guidelines of CDC will be followed as framework such as Brand identity standards.  Take safety approval prior to implementation of campaign and conduct privacy impact assessment (CDC Social Media Best Practices 2018)
Time frame for the plan- one year and continue if needed further.
Budget- low cost budget that is $100 for preparing videos, graphics and brochures and posters on diabetic diet, types of exercises, self monitoring of glucose and motivational speeches, information referral services in London borough of Hillingdon. There will be two months of skills share.  Further, money will be used for social media management, schedule posts, Instagram marketing (CDC Social Media Best Practices 2018)
Benefits of campaign to target population

Improved awareness of exercises, proper diet and healthy habits on diabetes management and recognition of complications
Increased participation of the target population in dietary counselling, physical activity programs and regular exercises
Increased access to the mental health programs for emotional and  the psychological support
Increased communication between the health care providers
Increased participation in screening services (Hunter et al. 2014)

Health promotion

Post videos, graphics and brochures and posters on diabetic diet, types of exercises, self monitoring of glucose and motivational speeches, information referral services in London borough of Hillingdon (Thornicroft 2011)
Give people the access to like, comment and share their feedback and posts
Nurses to address the patient’s concerns
Help with insurance programs to better access health services
Nurses to provide tailored information to meet the patient’s needs  on fruits and vegetable choices, Insulin therapy and other new interventions
(Potter et al. 2016)

Health messages will use words like “join now to beat diabetes”, “diabetes diet plan”, “Act now’, “win over diabetes”, “Say no to sedentary style” 

On time medication
Brisk walking
Exercise- Healthy weight
Healthy diet
Insulin therapy


Increase in awareness about diabetes and complications
increase in screening activities or participation in  mental health programs and diet counselling
increasing rate of participation in physical activity due to motivation
There may be barriers to access to mental health program due to stereotyping and stigmatisation
lack of effective feedback monitoring
The campaign message may not be specific for given local community, it is fixed and can be misunderstood by people with low education
The drawback can be overcome by tracking the increase in traffic to Twitter and Facebook (Adobe SiteCatalyst)
Further strategy to track barriers to mental health programs and diet counselling – surveys and interviews
Access chart beat to see number of visitors on site in real time ad make changes to media content to address time intensive problem of campaign (Cdc.gov. 2018).

CDC Social Media Best Practices. 2018. CDC Social Media Tools, Guidelines & Best Practices. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/tools/guidelines/index.html
Cdc.gov. 2018. Facebook Guidelines Best Practices | Social Media | CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 16 April 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/tools/guidelines/facebook-guidelines.html
Hillingdon.gov.uk., 2018. Diabetes. [online] hillingdon.gov.uk. Available at: https://www.hillingdon.gov.uk/article/29740/Diabetes [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018].
Hunter, R.F., Tully, M.A., Donnelly, P., Stevenson, M. and Kee, F., 2014. Knowledge of UK physical activity guidelines: Implications for better targeted health promotion. Preventive medicine, 65, pp.33-39. 
Lim, W. M. 2016. Social media in medical and health care: opportunities and challenges. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(7), 964-976.
Mirowsky, J. 2017. Education, social status, and health. Routledge. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Hqw0DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT8&dq=higher+level+of+education+is+associated+with+better+outcomes&ots=0lEyjdqGkf&sig=WkP3K5sZ0XlZ90njvTOs7kFg4Mo#v=onepage&q=higher%20level%20of%20education%20is%20associated%20with%20better%20outcomes&f=false
Papaspurou, M., Laschou, V.C., Partsiopoulou, P., Fradelos, E.C., Kleisiaris, C.F., Kalota, M.A., Neroliatsiou, A. and Papathanasiou, I.V., 2015. Fears and health needs of patients with diabetes: A qualitative research in rural population. Medical Archives, 69(3), p.190.
Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P., and Hall, A. 2016. Fundamentals of Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=eCKKCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Fundamentals+of+Nursing&ots=oSOeDD4xpz&sig=b4xOkzOGTCQ9TYC2EnFWFiXTvRk#v=onepage&q=Fundamentals%20of%20Nursing&f=false
Rosales, C.B., de Zapien, J.E.G., Chang, J., Ingram, M., Fernandez, M.L., Carvajal, S.C. and Staten, L.K., 2017. Perspectives on a US–Mexico Border Community’s Diabetes and “Health-Care” Access Mobilization Efforts and Comparative Analysis of Community Health Needs over 12 Years. Frontiers in public health, 5, p.152.
Team, U.. 2016. Hillingdon has one of the lowest diabetes rates in capital but the problem is growing. [online] Urbs.london. Available at: https://urbs.london/diabetes-in-hillingdon/4382 [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018].
Thornicroft, G. (Ed.). 2011. Oxford textbook of community mental health. Oxford University Press. Retrived from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=v6Lmp8sUZf4C&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=Oxford+Textbook+of+Community+Mental+Health&ots=r50M4K11fI&sig=Ib5s1pWRaTKhRXcjn5pZxyUUK7o#v=onepage&q=Oxford%20Textbook%20of%20Community%20Mental%20Health&f=false
Ventola, C. L. 2014. Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(7), 491. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103576/
Verma, S.K., Luo, N., Subramaniam, M., Sum, C.F., Stahl, D., Liow, P.H. and Chong, S.A., 2017. Impact of depression on health related quality of life in patients with diabetes.
Vivienne Wu, S.F., Tung, H.H., Liang, S.Y., Lee, M.C. and Yu, N.C., 2014. Differences in the perceptions of self-care, health education barriers and educational needs between diabetes patients and nurses. Contemporary nurse, 46(2), pp.187-196.
World Health Organization., 2016. GLOBAL REPORT ON DIABETES. [online] apps.who.int. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/204871/9789241565257_eng.pdf;jsessionid=D12C60E00C9EB55BDEE7814 [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018].

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