Real Life Project And Studies

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Real Life Project And Studies

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Real Life Project And Studies

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The report is based on Delhi Metro Rail, India. The following report evaluates a real life project and studies the feature of the project and its various shortcomings related to the project. The report studies the concept of project management and uses the application of stakeholder’s theory and theory of management. The report highlights the various shortcomings and challenges faced during the different stages of the project. The report highlights the various issues like land acquisition issues and sheds critical light into the arguments between the selection of elevated corridors and underground corridors. The reports shows the importance of stakeholders and also highlights the criticism faced from the public regarding issues like deforestation, noise pollution and development of project.
In the current generation there are various projects that are undertaken by different sectors to meet specific goals and objectives. There has to be a clear structured path, which is involved in meeting these goals and objectives. Management is a disciplinary body, which makes a clear strategy needed to be adopted for reaching goals and objectives. Project management is a discipline that combines initiation of a project, planning, implementation, controlling and signing off the work of a group regarding a specific project. This helps the team in achieving specific goals and objectives of the project. Project management is hinged on the general functions and principles of management, which are planning, organizing, staffing, controlling and coordinating. It is also a part of other management practices like financial forecasting and estimation, organisational behaviour, management science and cost and budgeting elements. It is an amalgamation and derivative of different body of management (Schwalbe 2015).
The topic chosen for the research paper is the project related to Delhi Metro Rail. The study critically analyses the struggles and challenges encountered during the different phases of the study. The study will shed critical light into the different application of management functions and theories in the quest of overcoming the challenges and difficulties phased during the different phases of the project. The relevance of different theories like theory of management and stakeholder’s theory are utilised in the research paper, in order to establish a comprehensive and cohesive study of the project.
Delhi Metro Rail, India    
India is a developing country with increasing population. The rise in population tends to bring a lot of issues to the fore. Some of the issues are traffic snag and environmental issues. The increasing number of environmental issues led the government and town planners to evaluate the alternative in terms of transportation system to overcome this impending danger. In such circumstances, the metro rail system was advocated as an alternative means of transport. This was important as it reduced environmental pollution and functioned separately without providing a hindrance to the traffic system.
The Delhi Metro Rail is a project of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited. The project is a joint venture between Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited and Ministry of India and along with the Delhi Government. The primary focus of this project was to provide Delhi with an alternative source of transport and consequently assist the country in the economic development (Pemsel and Wiewiora 2013).
There are five elements in a project management, which comprises of initiation, planning, execution, controlling and closing. These five elements form the basic pillar of functioning of the management of the project. The Delhi Metro Rail Project has four phases in the total duration of the project. The phases are termed as phase 1, phase 2, phase 3 and phase 4. These 4 phases form the major stages that are involved from the beginning to the completion of the project. It is to be noted that each stage has its own separate issues and challenges that the managing body has to tackle and overcome.
The Delhi Metro Rail is underlined with key and strategic issues at various levels of the project.  One of the keys issues and challenges in the Delhi Metro Rail project are the assessment and he understanding of the preliminary activities to be taken before the execution of such projects. Understanding the significance of the role of a project planner and the selecting an efficient project planner was one of the key issues to be assessed. Application of key management concepts like stakeholder management and team management was difficult in the Delhi Metro Rail project. Creating a proper work culture was one of the key areas of concern and a major challenge in the Delhi Metro Rail project. Assessing and understanding the importance of stakeholders and managing the needs of stakeholders are another area of concern during the project. Understanding and assessing these key areas of concern poses as a challenge to the project. Addressing and providing remedial solutions to such areas of concern is one of the challenging tasks. The economic state and development of the country is one of the criteria that have to be recognised in understanding the challenges of the project. Economic developing countries generally have to deal with funding issues relating to a project (Pemsel and Wiewiora 2013). Population explosion and increasing traffic issues can turn out to be a hindrance to a large infrastructure project like the Delhi Metro Rail Project.
Funding of the Project
  Usually such large infrastructure projects suffer from funding shortcomings. In a developing country like collection of fund turns out to be a major barrier to the execution and completion of such projects. In the case of Delhi Metro rail project, the funding process of this project was without much fuss. During the different phases of the funding project, the project faced many limitation and shortcomings since the borrowed to equity capital ratio was estimated at 70:30. The majority portion of the fund was of borrowed fund and this increased loan repayment burden on the project and also impacted the depreciation aspect of the materials used in the project.
Initial and Planning Stage
Elevated vs Underground metro corridor
One of the major hindrances, which the project faced, was the evaluation between elevated or underground establishment of the metro rail corridor. The metro rail project included many stakeholders and it is very critical to assess the stakeholder management concept in this project. According to this concept, the stakeholders refer to all this entities that hold a substantial or some amount interest in a particular endeavour. Therefore, during the initial stage of the project it was vital to notice that the stakeholders were not only the creditors of the project but a major portion of it represented the social community that would reap the benefit of the project. According to the stakeholder’s theory, it is a vital aspect regarding the management and safeguarding of the interest of the stakeholders, because they hold a major key to the successful implementation of the project.
 In the planning stage, it was noticed that the project received strong resistance and complaint from the stakeholders and it led to an incessant debate regarding elevated and underground metro rail. Initially the idea and plan of an elevated metro rail received strong clash and resistance since the elevated metro rail would pose as a threat to the privacy in their lives and it was also a potent cause of noise pollution. It was also opposed by the town planners and engineers since the elevated metro rail would hamper and severely affect the aesthetic of the city and also cause major hamper to the sight of the monumental buildings. These were the arguments against elevated construction of the metro rail corridor. The visibility blockage was not acceptable to the social community. It was also cited that there would be irrevocable micro climatic change and it would lead to heating issues. It was also stated that there could be major technical difficulties during the construction phase and it was strongly opposed by a major section of the stakeholder (Gutierrez and Hussein 2013).
However, the government lashed out regarding the concept of underground metro rail. The government were the fund provider and a member of the joint venture. Therefore, it was observed that the government strongly dissuaded from the fact and opposed the idea of underground metro rail corridors. The government stated there were ample and significant techno-economic benefits with the construction of the elevated metro rail corridor. The cost of underground metro rail would seem as an irrational option since it would cost twice as much compared to the construction. There were financial and safety concern with the underground construction of the corridor. The cost of constructing an elevated metro rail was $235 billion, compared to the underground cost, which was $635 billion. Therefore, these arguments formed a major hindrance in the construction of the metro rail project (Gutierrez and Hussein 2013).
Improper estimation and forecast traffic demand
The Delhi Metro Rail is a transportation project. The financial feasibility of any transportation project is the degree of approximation from the traffic demand estimation. These forecast and estimations provide the justification and the rationales of the decisions taken in the project. These forecasts and estimation form a vital tool in the planning stages of the project. However, it can be viewed that these forecasts are hardly correctly and suffer from various deviation in the reports. It has been seen in the project, that the forecast of traffic estimation was suffering from a lot of deviation, which gave an unfair picture of the project and also led to loopholes in the decision making process of the project (Meng 2012).
It led to creation of flaws in the decision making aspect of the project and also derailed the project to a degree. In the case of underestimation of traffic estimation, it would lead to chaos and inefficiency and would also lead to further investment of capital and unstable financial condition of the project. In the Delhi Metro Rail project, there was wrong estimation in the traffic forecasting (Crawford 2014).
The Delhi Metro Rail was found to be suffering from overestimation and inflated estimation traffic forecasts. There was difficulty in estimation the passenger figure. It was initially estimated that the passengers per day would be 1.5 million per day, which was later revaluated to 0.7 million per day. It was revised and reassessed during every phase level and this fluctuation in forecasting of the demand of the services led to difficulty in estimating the feasibility of the project and the future prospect of the project according to the demand received from the public. After the end of phase 1, the demand for the service was only 20% of the estimated demand forecasting. The traffic forecasting and demand estimation was one of the most difficult and tricky tasks during the planning process (Meng 2012).
Land Acquisition Issues
Land Acquisition issues are a conventional and one of the most common issues received by any mega transportation projects especially in the metro rail projects. One has to keep the stakeholder’s theory in mind while evaluating and studying The Delhi Metro Rail project. The project has to keep the socio- economic benefits of the project that the project. The project could not afford to implement the project at the cost of the social community.
One of the most common issues during the planning and pre-execution stage was land acquisition issues. The economic concept and definition of scarcity and demands needs no introduction. The demand is incessant and insatiable but the resources to feed it are scarce. Delhi is a heavily populated city, which increasing trend of population and busy life schedule. The availability of land in such a densely populated is scarce and therefore, land acquisition in such scenario is usually resisted from the public. The high scale land acquisition is a feature of metro rail projects and in the case of this project the high scale land acquisition would not have met positive remarks. The project manager had to make evaluations and assessment, which would keep the land acquisition as minimum as possible. This would not disrupt the socio-economic benefit that would be important to the social community. The Resettlement and rehabilitation impacts had to be considered and special considerations had to be made to the fact that how the project affected families (Leach 2014).
There were decision taken in which the metro corridors were prepared alongside a road or at the centre of it. This was planned keep the lack acquisition issues in mind and to keep the land acquisition minimum as possible. Excess land acquisition led to excess material and property use, which not only led to a hike in the overall cost of the project but also led to social unrest. This was one of the main major constraints in the project.
Execution Stage
According to the project management concept, the planning stage is followed by the execution stage. The project received a considerable amount of constraints in the execution stage. This is the stage, where the implementation of the plans and schedules of the project are carried out. Metro rail projects have faced serious issues and difficulties in the execution stages and it creates a snag and a hindrance to the progress of the project.
Growing environmental awareness in the current age leads to constraints in the project implementation stage. In the Delhi Metro Rail project, one of the issues faced during the construction phase was deforestation. According to sources, the project led to more than 25,000 trees being felled. The loss of tree cover was one of the issues circulating facing the project. The social activists and environmentalist strongly condemned this activity. The large scale infrastructure project required cutting down of trees for the metro corridors and the selected landscape was devoured of trees for the constructing process (Heldman 2013).
In the current age, where environmental issues are escalating at a rampant pace, deforestation received strong resistance from department of forests regarding the strategies and tactics of the Delhi Metro rail Corporation Limited. As a measure to offset this adverse practice, it was decided that afforestation would combat the deforestation method adopted for the project. It was decided that for every one tree cut there would ten trees planted. This was a hectic practice that needed to be followed to maintain social rest and to reduce the detrimental effect on the environment. Thus, the deforestation issue was an impactful and important issue that the project had to face during the execution and construction phase (Crawford 2014).
Noise Pollution  
Noise pollution was on one of the main issue that the project had to face. The construction sites were near commercial and residential sites and the noise pollution was one of the significant issues that the project had to face. The use of bulky and construction equipment and machineries led to increased noise pollution and strong vibrations. The vibrations caused severe discomfort and also the severity of the vibrations led to cracks being developed in building. This caused deterioration of the building and monument structures. The sound of rails on the wheels during the construction period caused major noise pollution and hampered the ambience of the social community (Heldman 2013).
 Generators, cooling fans and engines contributed majorly to the noise pollution level in the city. The vibrations and noise pollution disrupted the ambience and the social setting of the local community and gathered strong backlash from the community. As a result of this, new methods and technologies were applied to curb the noise pollution level and the vibration effect. This was a major issue circulating the project (Schwalbe 2015).
Property Development  
One of the criticisms given to the project was the development of properties along the metro corridor. It was viewed that the land acquired during the metro rail project was provided to them at a concessional rate. However, the public strongly reacted to the issue of development of property on the given land by the governing body of the project. It was seen as shift from the primary focus of the project to a total commercial outlook. The construction of metro rail project is a major public infrastructure projects and the development of property was viewed as typical real estate business outlook and was strongly condemned by the public. The grounds of criticism were circulating the fact that the attention would shift from the project to mainly developing the properties. In this scenario, the project was strongly criticised with the development of property on the acquired land, which were purchased at a rebate value for the purpose of the construction of the project (Leach, L.P., 2014).
However, it was pointed out by scholars that with the lack of fund in the longer run, these real estate activities were the source of fund for the project to keep it technically feasible in the long run.
Controlling and Completion Stage
Traffic Disruption
The construction sites in the project were mainly near the road sites and it acquired major portion of the land leading to major traffic disruption. The total usable areas of the road were narrowed as a result of the project and it led to chaos and disruption of traffic. Frequent traffic jams were noticed at peak office hours and the traffic disruption was a major concern for the project as there were high chances of accidents occurring in this process. The monsoon season further compounded the issues with water logging at the construction sites and chaotic scenes at the traffic scene (Pemsel and Wiewiora 2013).
Maintaining Strong Work Culture and organizational behaviour
One of the key concepts that need to be understood is team management and strong team force. In order to induce this, it is important that a strong work culture is developed. Managing a team is a difficult task and it underlines the various aspects of different individuals working together as a group.
The project suffered from visible constraints in the form of punctuality. The workers, who were a part of the project, were barely punctual and it led to delay in the different phases of the project. Instilling strong discipline and quick decision making skill turned out to be a major challenge in the project. Work culture and organization behaviour have a major impact on the successful implementation of the project. Maintaining physical fitness of the workers was a tricky thing. The efficiency regarding the understanding of the stakeholder’s needs including the public and contractors among the employees was not an easy task (Meng 2012).
On concluding this report, it can be inferred that the Delhi Metro Rail, India was one of the biggest infrastructure project. Like every other real life project, this project had derived concepts of various primary concepts like stakeholder’s theory and team management and theory management. The project functions on the basic concept of project management. Various issues in different stages are observed in the project. Demand forecasting and the deviations in the estimation were one of the biggest shortcomings of the project. It can be seen that the project suffers from issues in the form of land acquisition, deforestation and noise pollution, which occurred during the executive and implementation stages of the project. Maintaining work culture and avoiding disruption in traffic were some of the issues during the controlling stages. However, it can be viewed that the project did overcome the challenges and the Delhi Metro Rail project was a successful endeavour in term of transportation project.
Reference List
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